Voiced alveolar trill

consonantal sound

The voiced alveolar trill is a type of consonant. It is found in some spoken languages. It is usually called the rolled R, rolling R, or trilled R. The International Phonetic Alphabet letter for this sound is ⟨r⟩. The X-SAMPA symbol for this sound is r.

Alveolar trill
r
IPA number122
Encoding
Entity (decimal)r
Unicode (hex)U+0072
X-SAMPAr
Kirshenbaumr<trl>
Sound

 

Dictionaries of languages like English and German sometimes use the symbol ⟨r⟩. They have rhotic consonants that are not an alveolar trill. This is because typing the letter r is easier.

In many Indo-European languages, this sound is sometimes an allophone of the alveolar tap [ɾ]. This happens especially in unstressed syllables. Some languages like Catalan, Spanish, Albanian and some Portuguese treat these as two different sounds.

Features

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Examples

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Language Word IPA Meaning
Arabic رأس [rɑʔs] 'head'
Dutch rood  [roːt]  'red'
English Scottish curd [kʌrd] 'curd'
French southern France and Corsica rouge [ruʒ] 'red'
German some dialects Schmarrn  [ʃmaːrn]  'nonsense'
Hindi घर [ɡʱər] 'house'
Italian[1] terra [ˈtɛrra] 'earth'
Malay Standard arah [arah] 'direction'
Russian[2] играть [ɪˈɡr̠atʲ] 'to play'
Spanish[3] perro [ˈpe̞ro̞] 'dog'


References

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  1. Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628, S2CID 232345223
  2. Skalozub, Larisa (1963), Palatogrammy i Rentgenogrammy Soglasnyx Fonem Russkogo Literaturnogo Jazyka, Izdatelstvo Kievskogo Universiteta; cited in Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-19815-6
  3. Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373, S2CID 232344066