War of the First Coalition

1792–1797 set of battles between the French revolutionaries and the neighbouring monarchies

The War of the First Coalition (French: Guerre de la Première Coalition) was a series of wars between 1792 and 1797. The wars were fought between several European countries. They were first fought against the constitutional Kingdom of France and then the French Republic.[18] The other countries did not fight together. There was very little agreement. Each country wanted a different part of France after a French defeat. This defeat never happened.[19]

War of the First Coalition
Part of the French Revolutionary Wars and the Coalition Wars
War of the first coalitionBattle of ValmySiege of Toulon (1793)Battle of Fleurus (1794)Invasion of France (1795)Battle of ArcoleSiege of Mantua (1796–1797)
War of the first coalition

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Left to right, top to bottom:
Battles of Valmy, Toulon, Fleurus, Quiberon, Arcole and Mantua
Date20 April 1792 – 17 October 1797
(5 years, 5 months and 4 weeks)
France, Central Europe, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Spain, West Indies

French victory; Treaty of The Hague, Treaty of Paris, Peaces of Basel, Treaty of Tolentino, Treaty of Campo Formio

  • French annexation of the Austrian Netherlands, the Left Bank of the Rhine, and other smaller territories
  • Santo Domingo to France
  • Several French "sister republics" established
  • End of millennial Venetian independence
  • Belligerents

    First Coalition:
    Dutch Republic Dutch Republic
    (until 1795)[1]
     Great Britain[2]
     Holy Roman Empire (until 1797)[3]

    Papal States Papal States (until 1797)[6]
     Parma (until 1796)
     Prussia (until 1795)[4]
     Sardinia (until 1796)[7]
    Spain Spain (until 1795)[4]
     Naples (until 1796)
    Other Italian states[8]

    French First Republic French Republic[9]

    French satellites:[10]

    French naval allies:

    Commanders and leaders

    French First Republic 1794:

    Casualties and losses
    Habsburg Monarchy 94,000 soldiers killed in combat[15]
    ~282,000 died of disease
    220,000 captured
    100,000 wounded[16]
    French First Republic 100,000 soldiers killed in combat
    ~300,000 died of disease
    150,000 captured[17][15]


    • Holland, Arthur William (1911). "French Revolution, The" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
    1. Left the war after signing the Treaty of The Hague (1795) with France.
    2. Including the   Army of Condé
    3. Nominally the Holy Roman Empire, under Austrian rule, also encompassed many other Italian states, such as the Duchy of Modena and the Duchy of Massa. Left the war after signing the Peace of Leoben with France.
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Left the war after signing the Peace of Basel with France.
    5. 5.0 5.1 Left the war after signing the Peace of Paris with France.
    6. Left the war after signing the Treaty of Tolentino with France.
    7. Left the war after signing the Treaty of Paris with France.
    8. Virtually all of the Italian states, including the neutral Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Venice, as well the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, were conquered following Napoleon's invasion in 1796 and became French satellite states. The Principality of Monaco had been annexed in 1793.
    9. Yet Template:Country data Kingdom of the French until 1792
    10. Including the   Polish Legions formed in French-allied Italy in 1797, following the abolition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Third Partition in 1795.
    11. The French Revolutionary Army and Dutch revolutionaries overthrew the Dutch Republic and established the Batavian Republic as a puppet state in its place.
    12. Various conquered Italian states, including
      the   Cisalpine Republic from 1797
    13. Re-entered the war against Britain as an ally of France after signing the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso.
    14. Lynn, John A. "Recalculating French Army Growth during the Grand Siecle, 1610-1715." French Historical Studies 18, no. 4 (1994): 881-906, p. 904. Only counting frontline army troops, not naval personnel, militiamen, or reserves; the National Guard alone was supposed to provide a reserve of 1,200,000 men in 1789.
    15. 15.0 15.1 Victimario Histórico Militar Capítulo IV Guerras de la Revolución Francesa ( 1789 a 1815 )
    16. Micheal Clodfelter, "Warfare and Armed Conflicts A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492–2015", 4th edition, MacFarland: 2017. Page 100.
    17. Clodfelter, p. 100.
    18. Holland 1911, Battle of Valmy.
    19. (in Dutch) Noah Shusterman – De Franse Revolutie (The French Revolution). Veen Media, Amsterdam, 2015. (Translation of: The French Revolution. Faith, Desire, and Politics. Routledge, London/New York, 2014.) Chapter 7 (p. 271–312) : The federalist revolts, the Vendée and the beginning of the Terror (summer–fall 1793).