World Trade Center site
World Trade Center site refers to the 16 acres (65,000 m2) area of land in Lower Manhattan in New York City, that hosted both the original and new World Trade Centers. The land was originally underwater. The first World Trade Center complex of buildings stood on the site until it was destroyed in the September 11 attacks. The new World Trade Center complex is mostly complete and is built on the site. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey owns most of the land. The site is overseen by Studio Daniel Libeskind, Silverstein Properties, and the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation.
September 11 attacksEdit
On the morning of September 11, 2001, two airplanes were captured by terrorists close to al-Qaeda and crashed into the Twin Towers, the North Tower and the South Tower, of the World Trade Center. The towers fell and were destroyed within two hours of the crashes. Nearly 3,000 people died in the attacks. After the attacks, hospital workers and police offers began calling the site "Ground Zero".
Debris and clean-upEdit
When the towers fell, they caused dust to spread in New York City, and left hundreds of thousands of tons of debris at the site. The New York City Fire Department separated the site into four areas to make cleanup of the site and the search for people who survived the attack easier. Early on, it was said that the debris at the site would take a year to get rid of, but cleanup ended in May 2002. Building materials and debris from Ground Zero were sent to the Fresh Kills Landfill in Staten Island.
In December 2001, a viewing area at Fulton Street, between Church Street and Broadway, was opened to the public.
On March 11, 2002, six months after the attacks, the Tribute in Light, a memorial with two beams of light shooting straight up into the sky, began. It was lit up every day at dusk until April 14, 2002. After that, it was lit up for the second anniversary of the attacks, on September 11, 2003. It has been lit up every September 11 since then.
The new World Trade Center complex will have the following buildings:
- 1 World Trade Center - Construction began in April 2006. It was topped out in August 2012, and completed in November 2014.
- 2 World Trade Center - Construction began in July 2008.
- 3 World Trade Center - Construction began in March 2008.
- 4 World Trade Center - Construction began in 2008. It opened on November 13, 2013.
- 5 World Trade Center - Construction began on September 9, 2011.
- 7 World Trade Center - Opened on May 23, 2006.
Soon after the September 11 attacks, Mayor Rudy Giuliani, Governor George Pataki, and President George W. Bush said that they would rebuild the World Trade Center. On the day of the attacks, Giuliani said, "We will rebuild. We're going to come out of this stronger than before, politically stronger, economically stronger. The skyline will be made whole again." During a visit to the site on September 14, 2001, Bush spoke to a crowd of workers through a megaphone. A person in the crowd shouted, "I can't hear you," to which Bush replied, "I can hear you. The rest of the world hears you. And the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon."
In an address to Congress, the president said, "As a symbol of America's resolve, my administration will work with Congress, and these two leaders, to show the world that we will rebuild New York City." However, 12 years after the attacks, only two buildings, 4 World Trade Center and 7 World Trade Center, have been rebuilt. One building, One World Trade Center, is currently under construction.
In November 2001, Governor Pataki started the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) to oversee the rebuilding of the World Trade Center. The LMDC leads federal help in the rebuilding, and works with the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Larry Silverstein, and Studio Daniel Libeskind. It also communicates with the local community, businesses, the city of New York, and the families of the people who were killed in the September 11 attacks.
National September 11 Memorial & MuseumEdit
A memorial, "Reflecting Absence", honors the people killed in the September 11 attacks and the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. It was designed by Peter Walker and Israeli-American architect Michael Arad. It has a field of trees with the footprints of the original towers. The footprints are filled with pools of water. It opened on the tenth anniversary of the attacks, on September 11, 2011.
On October 12, 2004, the LMDC announced that Gehry Partners LLP and Snøhetta, an architectural company from Norway, would design a performing arts center and museum at the site. It is a museum and a visitors' center for the site. The museum opened in 2014.
An episode of CBS's 60 Minutes in 2010 was about the lack of work done at Ground Zero. It focused on how most of the buildings did not have a date for completion, the main building, One World Trade Center (originally called the Freedom Tower), having gone through three different designs, and the delays and high amount of money that went into the rebuilding. Larry Silverstein said that the entire site would be completed in 2037, and that billions of dollars have been spent on rebuilding the site, even though Ground Zero "is still a hole in the ground." During an interview for the episode, Silverstein said, "I am the most frustrated person in the world...I'm seventy-eight years of age; I want to see this thing done in my lifetime". However, it was said in early 2011 that a lot of work has been done on the site, with all five buildings under construction. All of the buildings will be completed between 2012 and 2016. Criticism of the work being done at Ground Zero was made in 2008 and 2009, when there was no work being done at the site.
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- "US Shocked by Terror Attacks". BBC News. September 11, 2001.
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- Barry, Dan (September 24, 2001). "A NATION CHALLENGED: THE SITE; At the Scene of Random Devastation, a Most Orderly Mission". The New York Times.CS1 maint: Date and year (link)
- Iovine, Julie V. (September 27, 2001). "Designers Look Beyond Debris". The New York Times.
- "The Last Steel Column". The New York Times. May 30, 2002.
- Hirschkorn, Phil (December 30, 2001). "A NATION CHALLENGED: GROUND ZERO; First Viewing Platform Opens to the Public". The New York Times.
- Dunlap, David W. (September 9, 2006). "Twin Beams to Light Sky Again. But After 2008?". The New York Times.
- Cuza, Bobby (September 2, 2011). "9/11 A Decade Later: One World Trade Center Rises In Lower Manhattan". NY1.
- "A dozen years after the Sept. 11 terror attack, the first new tower officially opens on the World Trade Center site".
- "Work to Resume at Burned Bank Tower". The New York Times. The Associated Press. May 1, 2008.
- "Tower 7". Silverstein Properties. 2008.
- Taylor, Tess (September 26, 2001). "Rebuilding in New York". Architecture Week.
- Walsh, Edward (September 15, 2001). "Bush Encourages N.Y. Rescuers" (PDF). The Washington Post. pp. A10.
- "Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People". The White House. September 20, 2001.
- Pérez-Peña, Richard (November 3, 2001). "A NATION CHALLENGED: DOWNTOWN; State Plans Rebuilding Agency, Perhaps Led by Giuliani". The New York Times.
- "A Corporation to Rebuild Ground Zero". The New York Times. November 4, 2001.
- Cuza, Bobby (July 8, 2011). "9/11 A Decade Later: The 9/11 Memorial From All Sides". NY1.
- www.RenewNYC.org (October 12, 2004). "The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation Announces Selection of Architectural Firms to Design the Performing Arts Complex and the Museum Complex on the World Trade Center Site". Press release. http://www.renewnyc.com/displaynews.aspx?newsid=b60c011b-187b-44b8-b764-1b4381427018.
- Spitz, Rebecca (March 9, 2011). "9/11 A Decade Later: Glass Atrium Rises At WTC Memorial Site". NY1.
- "Developer: Ground Zero a National Disgrace - 60 Minutes: Eight Years and Billions of Dollars Later, Part of 9/11 Site is Still Just a Big Hole". CBS News. 2010-02-18. p. 1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to World Trade Center site.|
- Official site - Silverstein Properties
- 9/11 Tribute Center
- Reviving Ground Zero - slideshow with audio by The New York Times
- National September 11 Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center
- Project Rebirth
- World Trade Center Rising
- RebuildGroundZero.org, a community project based on Ground Zero's rebuilding