Zebulon Montgomery Pike (January 5, 1779 – April 27, 1813) was an American brigadier general and explorer. Pikes Peak in Colorado is named after him. As a U.S. Army officer, President Thomas Jefferson asked him to lead two journeys through the new Louisiana Purchase territory. The first was in 1805-06 to explore the upper northern parts of the Mississippi River. The second journey was in 1806-07 to explore the Southwest to the edges of the northern Spanish-colonial settlements of New Mexico and Texas. Pike's journeys happened at the same time as other journeys that happened while Thomas Jefferson was president. This include the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) and the Thomas Freeman and Peter Custis expedition up the Red River (1806).
Zebulon Montgomery Pike
January 5, 1779
Lamington, New Jersey, U.S.
|Died||April 27, 1813 (aged 34)|
Outside Fort York, York, Upper Canada
|Cause of death||Killed in action|
|Resting place||Military Cemetery, Sackets Harbor, New York|
|Spouse(s)||Clarissa Harlow Brown|
|Parent(s)||Zebulon Pike Sr.|
Pike's second journey crossed the Rocky Mountains into what is now southern Colorado. He was captured by the Spanish colonial authorities near Santa Fe. They sent Pike and his men to Chihuahua (present-day Mexico), to be questioned. Later in 1807, Pike and some of his men were led by the Spanish through Texas, and they were released near American territory in Louisiana.
In 1810, Pike wrote a book about his journeys. The book was so popular that it was translated into Dutch, French, and German languages, for publication in Europe. He later became a brigadier general in the American Army. He served during the War of 1812, until he was killed during the Battle of York, in April 1813.
Early and family lifeEdit
Early life and educationEdit
Pike was born during the Revolutionary War, on January 5, 1779, near Lamberton, now called Lamington in Bedminster, New Jersey, in Somerset County, New Jersey. His mother was Isabella (Brown), and his father was Zebulon Pike. He would become similar to his father, who had started his own career in the military service of the United States in 1775, at the outset of the American Revolutionary War.
Marriage and familyEdit
Zebulon Pike, Jr. married Clarissa Harlow Brown in 1801. They had one child who lived to become an adult, Clarissa Brown Pike. She later married President William Henry Harrison's son, John Cleves Symmes Harrison. They had four other children who died before becoming adults.
War of 1812Edit
Pike was promoted to brigadier general in March 1813. Along with General Jacob Brown, Pike left Sackets Harbor, on the New York shore of Lake Ontario. This would be his last military campaign. On this campaign, Pike led soldiers in the successful attack on York (now Toronto), on April 27, 1813. Pike was killed, along with other American soldiers, by flying rocks and other debris. This was when the withdrawing British blew up its ammunition supply as Pike's troops got close to Fort York. His body was brought by ship back to Sackets Harbor. His body were buried at the military cemetery.
In 1901, General William Jackson Palmer built a marble statue of Zebulon Pike. It was placed near the main entrance of the Antlers Hotel. Pike was later honored in 1926 with a bronze medallion portrait placed in the pavilion at Tahama Spring in Monument Valley Park, Colorado Springs.
- Fort Pike
- Camp Pike, Arkansas (A sub-section of Camp Joe T. Robinson Arkansas National Guard)
- USS General Pike
A building at Fort Knox is named in his honor.
- Pike Bay
- Pike Creek
- Pike Island at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers in Fort Snelling State Park, Minnesota
- Pikes Peak
- Zebulon Pike Lake Reservoir in Morrison County, Minnesota
- Pike County in:
- Pike, New York
- Piketon, Ohio
- Pikeville, Kentucky
- Pikeville, Tennessee
- Pikesville, Maryland
- Pike Bay Township in Cass County, Minnesota
- Pike Creek Township in Morrison County, Minnesota
- Pike Township, Marion County, Indiana
- Pike Township, Wyoming County, New York
- Pike Township, Stark County, Ohio
- Pike National Forest in Colorado
- Pikes Peak State Park in Clayton County, Iowa
- Pike Trail League, Kansas high school activities league
- Pike Valley School District, Kansas School District, U.S.D. 426
- Liberty ship SS Zebulon Pike (appears in Episode 1 of Victory At Sea)
- General Zebulon Pike Lock and Dam No. 11 in Dubuque, Iowa
- Dunbar, William; Hunter, George; Berry, Trey; Beasley, Pam; Clements, Jeanne (2006). Berry, Trey; Beasley, Pam; Clements, Jeanne (eds.). The Forgotten Expedition, 1804–1805: The Louisiana Purchase Journals of Dunbar and Hunter. Louisiana State University Press. p. xi. ISBN 978-0-8071-3165-7.
- Irving, Washington (November 1814). "Biographical Memoir of the Late Brigadier General Zebulon Montgomery Pike". Analectic Magazine. Vol. 4. p. 380.
- Wilson, Thomas (1822). The Biography of the Principal American Military and Naval Heroes; Comprehending Details of Their Achievements During the Revolutionary and Late Wars. Vol. II (Second ed.). New York: John Low. p. 9.
- Backes, William J. (October 1919). "General Zebulon M. Pike, Somerset-Born". Somerset County Historical Quarterly. Somerset Historical Publications, Reprint Publishers. 8 (4): 241–51.
- Calvert, Patricia (2005). Zebulon Pike: Lost in the Rockies. Marshall Cavendish. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7614-1612-8.
- Harris, Matthew L.; Buckley, Jay H. (2012). Buckley, Jay H.; Harris, Matthew L. (eds.). Zebulon Pike, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-4243-2.
- Harris, Matthew L.; Buckley, Jay H. (2012). Zebulon Pike, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-8061-8831-7.
- Valkenburg, Samuel Van (1976). "Pike, Zebulon Montgomery". In William D. Halsey (ed.). Collier's Encyclopedia. Vol. 19. New York: Macmillan Educational Corporation. p. 46.
- Peppiatt, Liam. "Chapter 31B: Fort York". Robertson's Landmarks of Toronto. Archived from the original on 2016-06-06. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
- D'imperio, Chuck (2018). Graves of Upstate New York: A Guide to 100 Notable Resting Places, Second Edition. Syracuse University Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-8156-5440-7.
- Olsen, Michael L. (Spring 2006). "Zebulon Pike and American Popular Culture – or – Has Pike Peaked?" (PDF). Kansas History. 29 (1): 48–59.
- "William J. Palmer". Facts Illustrated Vol. 9 No. 13/14. January 1, 1902. pp. 31–32.
- "Bronze Medallions" (PDF). Sunday Gazette and Telegraph. March 26, 1927. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
- Upham, Warren (1920). Minnesota Geographic Names: Their Origin and Historic Significance. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 441.
- Krakow, Kenneth K. (1975). Georgia Place-Names: Their History and Origins (PDF). Macon, GA: Winship Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-915430-00-0.
- Garman-Schlaefli, Gloria (31 January 2008). "Pike Trail League formed 60 years ago". Jewell County Record. No. 5. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- Harris, Matthew L.; Buckley, Jay H. (2012). Zebulon Pike, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-4243-2.
- Hollon, W. Eugene (1949). The Lost Pathfinder, Zebulon Montgomery Pike. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-0193-4.
- Orsi, Jared (2014). Citizen Explorer: The Life of Zebulon Pike. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-976872-1.
- Works by Zebulon Pike at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Zebulon Pike at Internet Archive
- Works by Zebulon Pike at Open Library
- National Park Service biography
- Santa Fe Trail Research
- ""Butler County connections to the Mexican War" Hamilton Journal-News Hamilton, Ohio". Archived from the original on 2007-03-31.
- Pike's Explorations Archived 2014-05-12 at the Wayback Machine - related to Pike's journey to find the source of the Mississippi River and the building of his fort in what is now Morrison County, Minnesota
- Pike's Menagerie Archived 2014-05-12 at the Wayback Machine - the animals Pike and his men encountered in central Minnesota
- Was Pike a Failure? Archived 2014-05-12 at the Wayback Machine - an examination of the often-heard critique of Pike's Mississippi River expedition
- Zebulon Pike and the Blue Mountain - award-winning film produced with the help of Pike Historian W. Eugene Hollon, the U.S. Army, the Smithsonian and the National Archives about the explorer's time in what is now Colorado