- Hylobatidae, the gibbons and siamangs;
- Hominidae, consisting of chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and humans.
Temporal range: late Oligocene – Recent
|A chimpanzee, an example of a great ape|
One clear difference between monkeys and apes is that monkeys almost always have tails, but hominoids never do. There are also differences in their teeth and the way they move their arms. They have a wide degree of freedom at the shoulder joint, which helps them swing by their arms in the trees (brachiation).
- Groves, Colin; Wilson D.E. and Reeder D.M. (eds) 2005. Mammal species of the world. 3rd ed, Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 178-184. ISBN 0-801-88221-4 
- Goodman M. et al (1990). "Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids". Journal of Molecular Evolution 30 (3): 260–266. doi:10.1007/BF02099995. PMID 2109087.
- Ewen, Ewen (13 October 2008). "Loving bonobos have a carnivorous dark side". newscientist. newscientist. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Hoag, Hannah (2013). "Humans are becoming more carnivorous". Nature. Nature. Retrieved 6 May 2016.