genus of molluscs

Argonauta, the argonauts, is the only living genus in the Argonautidae family. They are a group of pelagic octopods.

Temporal range: Miocene – Recent
Eggcases of various Argonauta species
Scientific classification

Linnaeus, 1758

They are also called paper nautiluses, because of the paper-thin eggcase that females make. This structure does not have the gas-filled chambers of nautilus shells, and is not a true cephalopod shell. It is an evolutionary innovation unique to the genus Argonauta.[1]

Argonauts are found in tropical and subtropical waters worldwide: they live in open ocean. Like most octopods, they have a rounded body, eight arms and no fins. However, unlike octopuses, argonauts live close to the sea surface rather than on the seabed. Argonauta species have very large eyes and small distal webs. They have a mantle-funnel locking apparatus, which is a way to identify the genus. It consists of knob-like cartilages in the mantle and corresponding depressions in the funnel. Unlike the closely related genera Ocythoe and Tremoctopus, Argonauta species lack water pores.

Physical description change

Sexual dimorphism and reproduction change

In Argonauts, males and females are quite different in size and lifespan. Females grow up to 10 cm and make shells up to 30 cm, while males rarely grow larger than 2 cm. The males only mate once in their short lifetime, but the females can get pregnant repeatedly. The females have been known since ancient times while the males were only described in the late 19th Century. The males use a modified arm, the hectocotylus, to transfer sperm to the female. For fertilization, the arm is inserted into the female's pallial cavity, then is detached from the male.

The hectocotylus was originally described as a parasitic worm.[2] The hectocotyl arm and its correct function were described by Aristotle. His account was disbelieved for over 2000 years, but was rediscovered in the early 19th century.[3]

Eggcase change

Female argonauts make a laterally compressed, calcareous eggcase in which they live. The eggcase curiously resembles the shells of extinct ammonites. It is secreted by the tips of the female's two greatly expanded dorsal tentacles (third left arms) before egg laying. After she deposits her eggs in the floating eggcase, the female herself takes shelter in it, often along with the male's detached hectocotylus. She is usually found with her head and tentacles protruding from the opening, but she retreats deeper inside if disturbed.

These ornate, curved white eggcases are occasionally found floating on the sea surface, sometimes with the female argonaut still clinging to it. It is made of calcite, with a 3-layered structure[4][5] The argonauts may have evolved to use ammonite shells for their egg laying, eventually becoming able to mend the shells and perhaps even make their own.[6]

The egg case also contains a bubble of gas used for buoyancy similar to shelled cephalopods, although it does not have chambers as seen in other shelled cephalopods.[4]

Argonauta argo is the largest species in the genus and also produces the largest eggcase, which may reach a length of 300 mm.[7][8] The smallest species is Argonauta bottgeri, with a maximum recorded size of 67 mm.[9]

Beak change

The beaks of Argonauta species are distinctive. They are characterised by a very small rostrum and a fold that runs to the lower edge or near the free corner. The rostrum is 'pinched in' at the sides. This makes it much narrower than in other octopuses, with the exception of the closely allied monotypic genera Ocythoe and Vitreledonella. Argonaut beaks are most similar to those of Ocythoe tuberculata and Vitreledonella richardi. They differ in 'leaning back' to a greater degree than the former and because they have a more curved jaw angle than the latter.[9]

Feeding and defense change

Feeding mostly occurs during the day. Argonauts use tentacles to grab prey and drag it toward the mouth. It then bites the prey to inject it with poison from the salivary gland. They feed on small crustaceans, molluscs, but also jellyfish and salps. If the prey is shelled, the argonaut uses its radula to drill into the organism, then inject the poison.

Argonauts are capable of changing their color. They can blend in with their surroundings to avoid predators. They also produce ink, which is ejected when the animal is being attacked. This ink paralyzes the olfaction of the attacker, providing time for the argonaut to escape. The female is also able to pull back the web covering of her shell, making a silvery flash, which may deter a predator from attacking.

Argonauts are preyed upon by tunas, billfishes, and dolphins. Shells and remains of argonauts have been recorded from the stomachs of Alepisaurus ferox and Coryphaena hippurus.[9]

Male argonauts have been seen living inside salps, which are planktonic tunicates. Little is known about this relationship.[10]

Classification change

The genus Argonauta contains up to seven existing species. Several extinct species are also known.

The extinct species Obinautilus awaensis was originally assigned to Argonauta, but has since been transferred to the genus Obinautilus.[11]

Other websites change

References change

  1. (in German) Naef A. (1923). "Die Cephalopoden, Systematik". Fauna Flora Golf. Napoli (35). 1: 1–863.
  2. (in Italian) Delle Chiaje S. (1825). Memorie sulla storia e notomia degli animali. Senza Verlebre del Regno di Napoli. I.
  3. Thompson, Darcy Wentworth. 1913. On Aristotle as a biologist, with a prooemion on Herbert Spencer. Being the Herbert Spencer Lecture before the University of Oxford, on February 14, 1913. Oxford University Press.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Nixon M. & J.Z. Young (2003). The brains and lives of Cephalopods. Oxford University Press.
  5. Saul L. & Stadum C. (2005). "Fossil Argonauts (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopodida) from Late Miocene Siltstones Of The Los Angeles Basin, California". Journal of Paleontology. 79 (3): 520–531. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2005)079<0520:FAMCOF>2.0.CO;2. S2CID 131373540.
  6. Monks N. & P. Palmer (2002). Ammonites. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.
  7. Pisor D. L. (2005). Registry of world record size shells (4th ed.). Snail's Pace Productions and ConchBooks. p. 12.
  8. (in Russian) Nesis K N. 1982. Abridged key to the cephalopod mollusks of the world's ocean. Light and Food Industry Publishing House, Moscow, 385+ii pp. [Translated into English by B.S. Levitov; ed. L.A. Burgess 1987. Cephalopods of the world. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, N.J. 351 pp]
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Clarke M.R. (1986). A handbook for the identification of Cephalopod beaks. Oxford University Press. pp. 273 pp.
  10. Banas P.T. Smith D.E. & Biggs D.C. (1982). "An association between a pelagic octopod, Argonauta sp. Linnaeus 1758, and aggregate salps". Fish. Bull. U.S. 80: 648–650.
  11. Martill, David M.; Barker, Michael J. (2006). "A Paper Nautilus (Octopoda, Argonauta) from the Miocene Pakhna Formation of Cyprus". Palaeontology. 49 (5): 1035–1041. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2006.00578.x. S2CID 128781244.