group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and, often, to a surface
A biofilm is any group of microorganisms which stick to cell surfaces.
These sticky cells create a slimy layer outside the cells of the body. The cells in the biofilm produce extracellular polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and DNA. Because they have three-dimensional structure they are a community lifestyle for microorganisms. They have been metaphorically described as "cities for microbes".
The biofilm bacteria can share nutrients and are sheltered from harmful factors in their local environment, such as desiccation, antibiotics, and the host's immune system. The film of bacteria which live on your teeth are an example. Biofilms also form on inorganic objects like stones in water.
- ↑ López, Daniel; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto (2010). "Biofilms". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 2 (7): a000398. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a000398. ISSN 1943-0264. PMC 2890205. PMID 20519345.
- ↑ Aggarwal, S; Stewart, P; Hozalski, R (2016). "Biofilm Cohesive Strength as a Basis for Biofilm Recalcitrance: Are Bacterial Biofilms Overdesigned?". Sage Journals. 8 (suppl 2) (Suppl 2): 29–32. doi:10.4137/MBI.S31444. PMC 4718087. PMID 26819559.
- ↑ Watnick, P.; Kolter, R. (2000). "Biofilm, city of microbes". Journal of Bacteriology. 182 (10): 2675–2679. doi:10.1128/jb.182.10.2675-2679.2000. ISSN 0021-9193. PMC 101960. PMID 10781532.
- ↑ "Building Codes for Bacterial Cities | Quanta Magazine". Quanta Magazine. Retrieved 2017-07-25.