Black separatism

movement to create separate institutions for people of African descent in societies historically dominated by whites

Black separatism is a separatist political movement mainly in the United States. It propagates that those of African descent should have a cultural and economic development of their own. Black separatism comes from the idea of racial solidarity. It also implies that black people should organize themselves on the basis of their common skin color, their race, culture, and African heritage.[1] There were a total of 255 black separatist groups recorded in the United States as of 2019.[2][3]

Black separatism in its purest form asserts that blacks and whites ideally should form two independent nations.[4] Additionally, black separatists often seek to return to their original cultural homeland of Africa.[5] This sentiment was spearheaded by Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the 1920s.[6] Black separatists generally think that black people are hindered in a white-dominated society.


  1. Hall 1978, p. 1.
  2. "United States - active hate groups by type 2019". Statista. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
  3. "Black Separatist". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on 17 February 2021.
  4. Hall 1978, p. 3.
  5. "Back to Africa movement gathers pace". New African Magazine. 2019-01-04. Retrieved 2021-09-17.
  6. "Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association, The Twentieth Century, Divining America: Religion in American History, TeacherServe, National Humanities Center". Retrieved 2021-09-17.