yellow-red chalcedony variety, used as a semi-precious gemstone

Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone.[1][2]

Intaglio (engraved) showing a Ptolemaic queen, 1st century BC.

Similar to carnelian is a darker and harder stone called 'sard'. The two names are often used interchangeably. Both carnelian and sard are varieties of the silica mineral chalcedony coloured by impurities of iron oxide.

The gemstone has been used since prehistory.[3]

References change

  1. Websters New World College Dictionary. 4th ed. 2001.
  2. Duda, Rudolf and Rejl, Lubos 1990. Minerals of the World.
  3. Tallon F. (ed) Cornaline et pierres précieuses de Sumer à l’Islam. Musée du Louvre, Paris