In mathematics, the Cauchy-Lorentz distribution (after Augustin-Louis Cauchy and Hendrik Lorentz) is a continuous probability distribution with two parameters: a location parameter and a scale parameter. As a probability distribution, it is usually called a Cauchy distribution. Physicists know it as a Lorentz distribution.
The Cauchy distribution is used in spectroscopy to describe the spectral lines found there, and to describe resonance. It is also often used in statistics as the canonical example of a "pathological" distribution, since both its mean and its variance are undefined. The look of a Cauchy distribution is similar to that of a normal distribution, though with longer "tails".
Due to this, estimating the mean value may not converge to any single value with more data (law of large numbers) unlike a normal distribution; due to a higher chance of getting extreme values (the tails of a frequency plot).
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