Cervical cancer

cancer arising from the cervix

Cervical cancer is cancer of the cervix (the structure that connects the uterus and the vagina).[1] It is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV). It is a serious medical problem and sometimes causes malignance and death. Treatments are available for cervical cancer. One sign of cervical cancer is bleeding or discharge from the vagina. Sometimes, there are no symptoms until the cancer is very developed. For this reason, pap smears have become common to diagnose this cancer. They have cut the rate of cervical cancer in half.[2]

The cancer stage (the extent of cancer in the body) is an important factor in deciding the best treatment for cervical cancer. Other factors, such as your preferences and overall health, are also important.

A concern that some may have is fertility, the ability to have children. There are treatments for cervical cancer that preserve the uterus and ovaries. If the cancer is large or it has a high chance of coming back, it is likely to have treatments that will prevent pregnancy.[3]

For some people, taking part in a clinical trial may be an option. Clinical trials of new cancer drugs or treatment combinations may be available. To learn more about clinical trials, including how find and join a trial, see Clinical Trials Information for Patients and Caregivers.

For early cervical cancer, surgery is the first treatment. For cancer that is farther along, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be used.

Most types of cervical cancer can be prevented by a vaccine.[4] It prevents the types of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancer.[5][6] Experts recommend that women get the vaccine and normal pap smears.


  1. "Cervical Cancer Treatment - NCI". www.cancer.gov. 2022-10-13. Retrieved 2023-05-05.
  2. "Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention - NCI". www.cancer.gov. 2022-10-13. Retrieved 2023-05-05.
  3. "Cervical Cancer Treatment by Stage - NCI". www.cancer.gov. 2022-10-13. Retrieved 2023-05-05.
  4. "What Can I Do to Reduce My Risk of Cervical Cancer? | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2022-12-15. Retrieved 2023-05-05.
  5. "FDA Licenses New Vaccine for Prevention of Cervical Cancer". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2006-06-08. Archived from the original on 2009-05-12. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
  6. Lowy DR, Schiller JT (2006). "Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines". J. Clin. Invest. 116 (5): 1167–73. doi:10.1172/JCI28607. PMC 1451224. PMID 16670757. Retrieved 2007-12-01.[permanent dead link]