City designated by government ordinance
City designated by government ordinance (政令指定都市 seirei shitei toshi), also known as a designated city (指定都市 shitei toshi) or government ordinance city (政令市 seirei shi), is a defined class or category of Japanese cities. It is a local administrative division created by the national government. These cities all have a population over 500,000 people.
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- Web-Japan.org, "Local self-government," p. 3; retrieved 2012-12-2.
- Jacobs, A.J. "Japan's Evolving Nested Municipal Hierarchy: The Race for Local Power in the 2000s," Urban Studies Research, (2011); doi:10.1155/2011/692764; retrieved 2012-12-5.
- Jacobs, Table 1; retrieved 2012-12-18.
- Buhnik, Sophie. "From Shrinking Cities to Toshi no Shukushō: Identifying Patterns of Urban Shrinkage in the Osaka Metropolitan Area," Berkeley Planning Journal, Vol. 23, No. 1 (2001), p. 135 [PDF 4 of 24]; retrieved 2012-12-2.