The moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the significance of groups—their identities, goals, rights, and outcomes

Collectivism is a kind of ethics based on people being a group. Its opposite is individualism which is based on people being individuals.[1] Collectivists focus on what's good for a whole group. Individualists focus on what's good for each person. Collectivism and individualism are philosophical positions and are also part of politics.

The word "individualism" was originally used by socialists to attack their enemies. They said that individualists were selfish for not supporting socialism.[2] Instead, individualists support people being independent and chasing their own goals. They also believe in having lots of freedoms.[3]

Collectivists believe that one person is not as important as a group of many people. They often believe people should compromise to make things better for each other instead of just themselves.[4] They also think that letting someone do whatever they want is not good if it hurts lots of other people. Collectivism has many different types. It can mean serving your community, your government, your social class, your race, or some other group.[4]

Research change

  • In 1930, a person named Max Weber compared two ways of thinking in religion: one where people focus on themselves (individualism) and the other where they focus on being part of a group (collectivism). Weber thought that Protestants were more independent, while Catholics were more into having a structured community.[5]
  • Another person, Ferdinand Tönnies, talked about collectivism and individualism using big words like Gemeinschaft (community) and Gesellschaft (society). He used these words to describe two types of relationships: one where people care a lot about their community, especially in small villages, and another where people are more focused on society as a whole. An anthropologist named Redfield also talked about this idea in 1941 when comparing village life to city life.[6][7]
  • In 1980, another person named Geert Hofstede became important in comparing cultures. He said collectivism and individualism are like two ends of a line. If you're more towards collectivism, it means you care a lot about your social group and their goals, rather than just thinking about yourself.[8]

References change

  1. "individualism | Definition, History, Philosophy, Examples, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-04-08.
  2. Claeys, Gregory (1986). "'Individualism,' 'Socialism,' and 'Social Science': Further Notes on a Process of Conceptual Formation, 1800–1850". Journal of the History of Ideas. 47 (1). University of Pennsylvania Press: 81–93. doi:10.2307/2709596. JSTOR 2709596.
  3. "individualism". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2016 – via
  4. 4.0 4.1 "collectivism". Encyclopædia Britannica. {{cite encyclopedia}}: Cite uses deprecated parameter |authors= (help)
  5. M. Weber (1930). The Protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism. New York: Routledge.
  6. F. Tönnies (1957). Community and association. Harper Torchbooks.
  7. Redfield, Robert (1941). The folk culture of Yucatán. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226706597.
  8. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences. Beverly Hills: Sage.