The term was coined in 1960. D.S. Halacy's Cyborg: evolution of the superman in 1965 spoke of a "new frontier" that was "not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between 'inner space' to 'outer space' – a bridge...between mind and matter".
The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic. It is often applied to an organism that has restored or enhanced abilities, done by some artificial part, by or technology that relies on some sort of feedback.
While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism and the term "cybernetic organism" has been applied loosely to all sorts of things. The term can also apply to micro-organisms which are modified to perform at higher levels than their unmodified counterparts. It is thought that cyborg technology may form a part of humanity's future.
- "Cyborgs and Space ," in Astronautics (September 1960), by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.
- D.S. Halacy 1965. Cyborg: evolution of the superman. New York: Harper and Row, 7.
- Technology as extension of human functional architecture by Alexander Chislenko.
- Carvalko, Joseph (2012). The techno-human shell-a jump in the evolutionary gap. Sunbury Press. ISBN 978-1620061657.