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Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "fruit flies".

Drosophila
Drosophila.jpg
Drosophila sp.
Scientific classification
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Drosophila

Fallén, 1823
Egg
Larva
Pupae (brown examples are older than the white ones)
Adult Drosophila melanogaster

There are many species in this genus. Some do prefer places where there is rotting fruit. The adults may feed on nectar, and may lay their eggs on or near decaying fruit. The details differ greatly from species to species. The largest number of species is in the Hawaiian Islands. Some fruit flies can get drunk if they have a gene called "Happy Hour".[1]

One species of Drosophila in particular, D. melanogaster, has been heavily used in research in genetics and is a common model organism in developmental biology. The genus has more than 1,500 species,[2] and has varied appearance, behaviour, and breeding habitats.

The predators for this species are wasps, mites and crickets.

Life cycleEdit

Habitat: Fruit flies can be found worldwide in a different range of habitats (14). The fruit flies native habitats include the tropical regions back in time(14). Now the fruit fly has been introduced to almost all temperate regions of the world(14). The fruit flies habitats can also live in temperature and availability of water(14). The fruit flies species must live in moist environment (14). The fruit fly cannot live in colder climates (14).

Behavior: The behavior for fruit flies is simplistic (14). The fruit fly is easily drawn towards the smell of any food sources and they will mate almost indiscriminately with any other fruit fly of the opposite sex (14). The fruit flies have hairs on their back that are sensitive to air currents(14). The fruit flies have eyes that are sensitive to slight differences in light intensity (14). The fruit flies fly towards light (14).

Diet: Drosophila adults feed on fruits, vegetables and other decaying materials (16).

Morphology: The fruit flies morphology has ventral view of the left wing and landmark positioning (17). LV longitudinal vein, HCV: humeral cross-vein (17). CV: anterior cross‐vein; PCV: posterior cross‐vein; the proximal, distal, anterior‐posterior, and dorsal‐ventral axes are shown (b) [10]; head, frontal view (c); lateral view of head shows characteristic bristles above the eye (d); stero images of Drosophila (e); ovipositor of an adult female spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), lateral view (f); photographs (c)–(f) by courtesy of Martin Hauser, Department of Food and Agriculture, California, USA; bar on photograph: 25 cm (17).

ReproductionEdit

Males of this genus are known to have the longest sperm cells of any organism on Earth.[3] One species, Drosophila bifurca, has sperm 58 mm (2.3 in) long.[3][4][5] The cells are mostly tail, and are delivered to the females in tangled coils. Those Drosophila species with very long sperms make relatively few sperm cells.[6] D. melanogaster sperm cells are a more modest 1.8 mm long, although this is still about 300 times longer than a human sperm.

Several species in the D. melanogaster species group are known to mate by traumatic insemination, in which the male pierces the female's abdomen with his penis and injects his sperm through the wound into her abdominal cavity (haemocoel).[7][8]

Drosophila vary widely in their reproductive capacity. Those such as D. melanogaster that breed in large, scarce resources have ovaries that mature 10–20 eggs at a time, and can be laid together in one place. Others, which breed in common but less nutritious places (such as leaves), may only lay one egg each day.

The eggs have one or more respiratory filaments near the front end; the tips of these extend above the surface and allow oxygen to reach the embryo. Larvae feed not on vegetable matter but on the yeasts and microorganisms present on the decaying surface of leaves or fruits. Development time varies widely between species (between seven and more than 60 days) and depends on factors such as temperature, breeding substrate, and crowding.


Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. New Scientist [1]
  2. Bächli G. 1999–2006. TaxoDros: The database on taxonomy of Drosophilidae.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Scott Pitnick, Greg S. Spicer & Therese A. Markow (1995). "How long is a giant sperm?". Nature 375 (6527): 109. doi:10.1038/375109a0. PMID 7753164. 
  4. New York Times [2]
  5. Live Science [3]
  6. Dominique Joly, Nathalie Luck & Béatrice Dejonghe (2007). "Adaptation to long sperm in Drosophila: correlated development of the sperm roller and sperm packaging". Journal of Experimental Zoology B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 310B (2): 167–178. doi:10.1002/jez.b.21167. PMID 17377954. 
  7. Arnqvist, Göran; Rowe, Locke (2005). Sexual conflict. Princeton N.J: Monographs in Behavior and Ecology, Princeton University Press. pp. 87–91. ISBN 978-0-691-12218-2.
  8. Kamimura, Yoshitaka (2007). "Twin intromittent organs of Drosophila for traumatic insemination". Biol Lett. (The Royal Society) 3 (4): 401–404. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0192. PMC 2391172. PMID 17519186. 

14. https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Drosophila_melanogaster/

15. https://www.orkin.com/flies/fruit-fly/fruit-fly-predators

16. https://www.orkin.com/flies/fruit-fly/fruit-fly-food

17. https://www.intechopen.com/books/drosophila-melanogaster-model-for-recent-advances-in-genetics-and-therapeutics/introduction-to-drosophila