Electroweak interaction

unified description of electromagnetism and the weak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction or electroweak force is the description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature which are electromagnetism and the weak interaction. Though different, the theory models show them as two different parts of the same force. It proves that if the universe is hot enough, then the electromagnetic force and weak force merge into a combined electroweak force.

Sheldon Glashow,[1] Abdus Salam,[2] and Steven Weinberg[3] were awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics for their works to the unification of the weak and electromagnetic interaction.[4]


  1. Glashow, S. (1959). "The renormalizability of vector meson interactions." Nucl. Phys. 10, 107.
  2. Salam, A.; Ward, J. C. (1959). "Weak and electromagnetic interactions". Nuovo Cimento. 11 (4): 568–577. Bibcode:1959NCim...11..568S. doi:10.1007/BF02726525. S2CID 15889731.
  3. Weinberg, S (1967). "A Model of Leptons" (PDF). Phys. Rev. Lett. 19 (21): 1264–66. Bibcode:1967PhRvL..19.1264W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.19.1264. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-12.
  4. S. Bais (2005). The Equations: Icons of knowledge. p. 84. ISBN 0-674-01967-9.