Family

group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence
Törneman Familjen.jpg

A family is a group of people who, in most cases, live together. They share their money and food and are supposed to take care of one another.Its members are either genetically related (like brother and sister) or legally bound to each other, for example by marriage. In many cultures, the members of a family have the same or a similar surname.

A family is said to be society's smallest unit, its nucleus. Family life is more private and intimate than public life. But in most countries there are laws for it. For example, there are restrictions for marrying within the family and bans for having a sexual relationship with relatives, especially with children.

Types of familiesEdit

Three types of family are: nuclear family, single-parent family and extended family.

  1. A nuclear family is made up of parents and one or more children living together.
  2. A single-parent family is one where there is one parent and one or more children.
  3. An extended family or joint families means father, mother, daughters, sons, grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins, nieces and nephews. In many countries including China, Pakistan and India, extended or joint families traditionally live together.

Both the "nuclear family" and the "single-parent family" are also called the "immediate family".

Foster families are families where a child lives with and is cared for by people who are not his or her parents.

ClosenessEdit

Some family members are genetically closer to each other. The following table gives examples:

Degree of
relationship
Relationship Coefficient of
relationship (r)
0 identical twins; clones 100% (20)
0 individual-self 100% (20)
1 mother / father / daughter / son 50% (2−1)
2 half-sister / half-brother 25% (2−2)
2 full sister / full brother 50% (2⋅2−2)
2 3/4-sister / 3/4-brother 37.5% (2−2+2−3)
2 grandmother / grandfather / granddaughter / grandson 25% (2−2)
3 half-aunt / half-uncle / half-niece / half-nephew 12.5% (2−3)
3 full aunt / full uncle / full niece / full nephew 25% (2⋅2−3)
4 half-first cousin 6.25% (2−4)
4 single-first cousin 12.5% (2⋅2−4)
4 sesqui-first cousin 18.75% (3⋅2−4)
4 double-first cousin 25% (4⋅2−4)
3 great-grandmother / great-grandfather / great-granddaughter / great-grandson 12.5% (2−3)
4 half-grandaunt / half-granduncle / half-grandniece / half-grandnephew 6.25% (2−4)
4 full grandaunt / full granduncle / full grandniece / full grandnephew 12.5% (2⋅2−4)
5 half-first cousin once removed 3.125% (2−5)
5 single-first cousin once removed 6.25% (2⋅2−5)
5 sesqui-first cousin once removed 9.375% (3⋅2−5)
5 double-first cousin once removed 12.5% (4⋅2−5)
6 half-second cousin 1.5625% (2−6)
6 single-second cousin 3.125% (2⋅2−6)
6 sesqui-second cousin 4.6875% (3⋅2−6)
6 double-second cousin 6.25% (4⋅2−6)
6 sester-second cousin 7.8125% (5⋅2−6)
6 triple-second cousin 9.38% (6⋅2−6)
6 sesqua-second cousin 10.9375% (7⋅2−6)
6 quadruple-second cousin 12.5% (8⋅2−6)
4 great-great-grandmother / great-great-grandfather / great-great-granddaughter / great-great-grandson 6.25% (2−4)
5 half-great-grandaunt / half-great-granduncle / half-great-grandniece / half-great-grandnephew 3.125% (2−5)
5 full great-grandaunt / full great-granduncle / full great-grandniece / full great-grandnephew 6.25% (2⋅2−5)
6 half-first cousin twice removed 1.5625% (2−6)
6 single-first cousin twice removed 3.125% (2⋅2−6)
6 sesqui-first cousin twice removed 4.6875% (3⋅2−6)
6 double-first cousin twice removed 6.25% (4⋅2−6)
7 half-second cousin once removed 0.78125% (2−7)
7 single-second cousin once removed 1.5625% (2⋅2−7)
7 sesqui-second cousin once removed 2.34375% (3⋅2−7)
7 double-second cousin once removed 3.125% (4⋅2−7)
7 sester-second cousin once removed 3.90625% (5⋅2−7)
7 triple-second cousin once removed 4.6875% (6⋅2−7)
7 sesqua-second cousin once removed 5.46875% (7⋅2−7)
7 quadruple-second cousin once removed 6.25% (8⋅2−7)
8 half-third cousin 0.390625% (2−8)
8 single-third cousin 0.78125% (2⋅2−8)
8 sesqui-third cousin 1.171875% (3⋅2−8)
8 double-third cousin 1.5625% (4⋅2−8)
8 sester-third cousin 1.953125% (5⋅2−8)
8 triple-third cousin 2.34375% (6⋅2−8)
8 sesqua-third cousin 2.734375% (7⋅2−8)
8 quadruple-third cousin 3.125% (8⋅2−8)
8 4.5-tuple-third cousin 3.515625% (9⋅2−8)
8 quintuple-third cousin 3.90625% (10⋅2−8)
8 5.5-tuple-third cousin 4.296875% (11⋅2−8)
8 sextuple-third cousin 4.6875% (12⋅2−8)
8 6.5-tuple-third cousin 5.078125% (13⋅2−8)
8 septuple-third cousin 5.46875% (14⋅2−8)
8 7.5-tuple-third cousin 5.859375% (15⋅2−8)
8 octuple-third cousin 6.25% (16⋅2−8)
5 great-great-great-grandmother / great-great-great-grandfather / great-great-great-granddaughter / great-great-great-grandson 3.125% (2−5)
6 half-great-great-grandaunt / half-great-great-granduncle / half-great-great-grandniece / half-great-great-grandnephew 1.5625% (2−6)
6 full great-great-grandaunt / full great-great-granduncle / full great-great-grandniece / full great-great-grandnephew 3.125% (2⋅2−6)
7 single-first cousin thrice removed 1.5625% (2⋅2−7)
8 single-second cousin twice removed 0.78125% (2⋅2−8)
9 single-third cousin once removed 0.390625% (2⋅2−9)
10 single-fourth cousin 0.1953125% (2⋅2−10)

Notes:

Related pagesEdit