Federal Information Processing Standard
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are standards made by the United States Federal government for non-military government agencies and by government contractors to use, and they are announced to the public.
Some FIPS standards were originally developed by the U.S. government. For instance, standards for encoding data (e.g. country codes), but more significantly some encryption standards, such as the Data Encryption Standard (FIPS 46) and the Advanced Encryption Standard (FIPS 197).