Gochujang (Korean: 고추장) is a savory, fermented Korean food. It is made from red chili, glutinous rice, fermented soybeans and salt. It is used to add flavour to a variety of Korean foods such as bibmbab (Korean: 비빔밥), bulgogi (Korean: 불고기), and tteokbokki (Korean: 떡볶이).
The main ingredients of gochujang are red chili powder, glutinous rice powder mixed with powdered fermented soybeans, and salt. Each serving contains 8.9% of protein, 4.1% lipid, 15.9% of carbohydrate, and 3.5% of fibre. It has more Vitamin B than doenjang and ganjang. It contains 5mg of Vitamin C per gram and 2,445mg of carotene per 100 gram.
One peculiar ingredient is capsaicin which is main cause of hot taste. Some people put salted fish or meat into gochujang.
Gochujang (hot pepper paste) has been made since chili was introduced from Japan in 1592, during the middle period of the Chosun Dynasty (Korean: 조선 왕조). According to Jung-Bo-Sal-Lim-Kyung-Jae (Korean: 증보살림경제), written in 1766, it was made from beans, sweet from glutinous rice, hot from red peppers, and salty. Since that time, making gochujang became rapidly popular. In Nong-Ga-Wol-Lyung-Ga (Korean: 농가월령가), there is content regarding making it.
Different types of gochujang are made by adding different ingredients in the production process. Recipes are slightly different depending on the parts of Korea it comes from. The most common types of gochujang are listed below.
- Glutinous rice Gochujang
- Kaoliang Gochujang
made by adding kaoliang.
- Barley Gochujang
- Wheat Gochujang
- Red-bean Gochujang
made by adding red-beans. Used in Cho-Gochujang (초고추장) thanks to the beautiful red color.
- 이춘자, Lee Chun-Ja/ 장 醬/ 대원사, Dae Won Sa/ 2003/ pp. 89 – 107
- 김찬곤, Kim Chan-Gon, 한국문화관광부, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism/ 우리 민족 문화 상징 100/한솔수북, Han Sol Su Book/ 2006/ pp. 67 - 69