Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts

one of the two alternate writing directions that can be taken in an East Asian script, depending on the desired presentation of text
A copy of the Hunminjeongeum. It is written from right to left.
The Song dynasty scholar Su shi's work, the Han Shik Chup (寒食帖). It can be read from right to left.

Many East Asian scripts are written both horizontally and vertically.


Documents around the world have many different ways of writing. But there are mainly two ways of writing: writing horizontally (횡서, 橫書) or vertically (종서縱書). There are two kinds of horizontal writing. One kind can be read from left to right (좌횡서, 左橫書); the other is read from right to left (우횡서, 右橫書). There are two kinds of vertical writing as well: from left to right (좌정서, 左縱書) or from right to left (우정서, 右縱書). Traditionally, the countries in the Sinosphere (such as Korea, China, Japan or Vietnam) write vertically from right to left. When it was necessary to write horizontally, they wrote horizontally from right to left. When the Western culture began influencing them, they began writing horizontally from left to right, which is now used widely. Today, letters that can be written both horizontally and vertically are not common.

Most Western languages are written horizontally from left to right, but Arabian and Hebrew are written horizontally from right to left. Mongol letters are written horizontally from left to right.

Long ago, people used hieroglyphs. Hieroglyphs were very flexible letters. They were often written from left to right in the first line, and then right to left in the second line, and so on. This is called boustrophedon.


  • 屋名池誠 横書き登場-日本語表記の近代- ISBN 4004308631
  • 紀田順一郎 日本語大博物 ISBN 4883090469

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