signs of activation of the immune system

Inflammation is the first reaction of the immune system to an infection or irritation. It is an attempt of the immune system to dispel invaders and repair the body. It can happen in many parts of the body and often involves the following five steps:[1]

  1. The inflamed spot becomes red.
  2. The inflamed spot becomes hot.
  3. The inflamed spot begins to swell.
  4. The inflamed spot begins to feel uncomfortable.
  5. The inflamed spot might cause surrounding organs to dysfunction.

The first four of these reactions have been known for a long time, since antiquity. Finding them is attributed to Celsus. The last one was added by Rudolf Virchow in 1858.

There are two types of inflammation: acute and chronic. Acute inflammations are more intense but short-lived, while chronic inflammations are less intense but long-lived. Examples of acute inflammation include skin disorders (e.g., psoriasis, dandruff) and arthritis, while chronic inflammation can be responsible for diseases such as cancer, heart disease, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Adoption of healthy diet, physical exercise and rest are some of the ways to reduce Inflammations.[2]



  1. "Managing Inflammation: What is Inflammation?". The Sustainabilitist. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 2021-09-21.
  2. "Inflammation". WebMD. Retrieved 2021-09-21.

Other websites


  Media related to Inflammation at Wikimedia Commons