Iranian peoples

diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group

The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples, are a ethno-linguistic group who speak Iranian languages, a branch of the Indo-European languages.

Iranian peoples
Iranic peoples
Iranian languages distribution.png
Regions where Iranian languages ​​are spoken
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Iran.svg Iran: 79% of population[1]
Flag of Taliban.svg Afghanistan: 71% of population[2]
Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan: 79.9% of population[3]
Flag of South Ossetia.svg South Ossetia: 89.9% of population
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan18.99% of population[4]
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan1,544,700[5]
Flag of Syria.svg Syria7%–10% of population[6][7]
Flag of Iraq.svg Syria15–20% of population[8][9]
Flag of Russia.svg Russia760.536[10]
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan143,300[11]
Languages
Iranian languages (a branch of the Indo-European languages)
Religion
Predominately:
Islam (Sunni, Shia and Alevi)
Minorities:
Christianity (Eastern Orthodoxy, Nestorianism, Catholicism and Protestantism), Judaism, Baháʼí Faith, Yazidism, Yarsanism, Zoroastrianism, Assianism
(Historically also: Manichaeism and Buddhism)

Modern Iranian peoples include the Kurds, Lurs, Mazanderanis, Ossetians, Azerbaijanis, Tats, Tajiks, Balochs, Talyshs, Zazas, Pashtuns, Pamiris, Yaghnobis, Wakhis, Persians and Gilaks.

Historical Iranian peoples include the; Alans, Scythians,[12] Dahae, Sakas,[13] Medes, Bactrians, Sogdians,[14] Sarmatians, Parthians, Khwarezmians,[15] Cimmerians,[16] and Daylamites.

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Iran". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States). "Persian 61%, Azeri 16%, Kurd 10%, Lur 6%, Baloch 2%, Arab 2%, Turkmen and Turkic tribes 2%, other 1%"
  2. "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States). "Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4%"
  3. "Tajikistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States). "Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)"
  4. "Pakistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States). "Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28% "
  5. "Uzbekistan - Tajiks". World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. "The Tajiks are an Iranian people who speak a variety of Persian, an Indo-Aryan language. Most of them are Sunni Muslims and according to 2017 government estimates, ethnic Tajiks total 1,544,700 people (4.8 per cent of the population)."
  6. "Turkey's Syria offensive explained in four maps". BBC News. "Kurds make up between 7% and 10% of Syria's population. For decades, they were suppressed and denied basic rights by President Bashar al-Assad and, before him, his father Hafez."
  7. "Who are the Kurds?". BBC News. "Kurds make up between 7% and 10% of Syria's population. Before the uprising against President Bashar al-Assad began in 2011 most lived in the cities of Damascus and Aleppo, and in three, non-contiguous areas around Kobane, Afrin, and the north-eastern city of Qamishli."
  8. "Who are the Kurds?". BBC News. "Kurds make up an estimated 15% to 20% of Iraq's population. They have historically enjoyed more national rights than Kurds living in neighbouring states, but also faced brutal repression."
  9. "Iraq". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States). "Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian, or other 5%"
  10. Iranian ethnic groups mentioned in the 2010 Russian census:

    Ossetian: 528,515
    (Digor: 223)
    (Iron: 48)
    Tajik: 200,303
    Kurd: 23,232
    (Kurdmandji: 42)
    Persian: 3,696
    Talysh: 2,529
    Tat: 1,585
    Pamiri: 363
  11. Iranian ethnic groups mentioned in the 2009 Azerbaijani census:

    Talysh: 112,000
    Tat: 25,200
    Kurd: 6,100
  12. Ivantchik 2018: "SCYTHIANS, a nomadic people of Iranian origin (...)" Harmatta 1996, p. 181: "[B]oth Cimmerians and Scythians were Iranian peoples." Sulimirski 1985, pp. 149–153: "During the first half of the first millennium B.C., c. 3,000 to 2,500 years ago, the southern part of Eastern Europe was occupied mainly by peoples of Iranian stock [...] [T]he population of ancient Scythia was far from being homogeneous, nor were the Scyths themselves a homogeneous people. The country called after them was ruled by their principal tribe, the "Royal Scyths" (Her. iv. 20), who were of Iranian stock and called themselves "Skolotoi" (...)" West 2002, pp. 437–440: "[T]rue Scyths seems to be those whom [Herodotus] calls Royal Scyths, that is, the group who claimed hegemony [...] apparently warrior-pastoralists. It is generally agreed, from what we know of their names, that these were people of Iranian stock (...)" Rolle 1989, p. 56: "The physical characteristics of the Scythians correspond to their cultural affiliation: their origins place them within the group of Iranian peoples." Rostovtzeff 1922, p. 13: "The Scythian kingdom [...] was succeeded in the Russian steppes by an ascendancy of various Sarmatian tribes — Iranians, like the Scythians themselves." Minns 2011, p. 36: "The general view is that both agricultural and nomad Scythians were Iranian." Diakonoff 1985, p. 48: "The majority of the “Eastern” Iranian tribes – Scythians, Alani, Massagetae, Sakas, Chorasmians, Sogdians – remained on the territory of south-eastern Europe and in Central Asia."
  13. Diakonoff 1985, p. 48: "The majority of the “Eastern” Iranian tribes – Scythians, Alani, Massagetae, Sakas, Chorasmians, Sogdians – remained on the territory of south-eastern Europe and in Central Asia."
  14. Diakonoff 1985, p. 48: "The majority of the “Eastern” Iranian tribes – Scythians, Alani, Massagetae, Sakas, Chorasmians, Sogdians – remained on the territory of south-eastern Europe and in Central Asia."
  15. Diakonoff 1985, p. 48: "The majority of the “Eastern” Iranian tribes – Scythians, Alani, Massagetae, Sakas, Chorasmians, Sogdians – remained on the territory of south-eastern Europe and in Central Asia."
  16. Tokhtas’ev 1991, p. 563–567: "CIMMERIANS, a nomadic people, most likely of Iranian origin (...)" Harmatta 1996a, p. 181: "[B]oth Cimmerians and Scythians were Iranian peoples."

SourcesEdit

  • Ivantchik, Askold (2018). "Scythians". Encyclopædia Iranica. SCYTHIANS, a nomadic people of Iranian origin (...)
  • Harmatta, János (1996). "The Scythians". In Herrmann, Joachim; Zürcher, Erik (ed.). History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. Vol. 3. UNESCO. pp. 181–182. ISBN 923102812X. [B]oth Cimmerians and Scythians were Iranian peoples.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Sulimirski, T. (1985). "The Scyths". In Gershevitch, I (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran: The Median and Achaemenian Periods. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 149–153. ISBN 978-1-139-05493-5. During the first half of the first millennium B.C., c. 3,000 to 2,500 years ago, the southern part of Eastern Europe was occupied mainly by peoples of Iranian stock [...] [T]he population of ancient Scythia was far from being homogeneous, nor were the Scyths themselves a homogeneous people. The country called after them was ruled by their principal tribe, the "Royal Scyths" (Her. iv. 20), who were of Iranian stock and called themselves "Skolotoi" (...)
  • West, Stephanie (2002). "Scythians". In In Bakker, Egbert J.; de Jong, Irene J. F.; van Wees, Hans (ed.). Brill's Companion to Herodotus. Brill. pp. 437–456. ISBN 978-90-04-21758-4. [T]rue Scyths seems to be those whom [Herodotus] calls Royal Scyths, that is, the group who claimed hegemony [...] apparently warrior-pastoralists. It is generally agreed, from what we know of their names, that these were people of Iranian stock (...){{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Rolle, Renate (1989). The World of the Scythians. University of California Press. pp. 56. ISBN 0-520-06864-5. The physical characteristics of the Scythians correspond to their cultural affiliation: their origins place them within the group of Iranian peoples.
  • Rostovtzeff, Michael (1922). Iranians & Greeks In South Russia. Clarendon Press. pp. 13. The Scythian kingdom [...] was succeeded in the Russian steppes by an ascendancy of various Sarmatian tribes — Iranians, like the Scythians themselves.
  • Minns, Ellis Hovell (2011). Scythians and Greeks: A Survey of Ancient History and Archaeology on the North Coast of the Euxine from the Danube to the Caucasus. Cambridge University Press. pp. 36. ISBN 978-1-108-02487-7. The general view is that both agricultural and nomad Scythians were Iranian.
  • Tokhtas’ev, Sergei R. (1991). "CIMMERIANS". Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. V, Fasc. 6. pp. 563–567. CIMMERIANS, a nomadic people, most likely of Iranian origin (...)
  • Harmatta, János (1996a). "The Scythians". In Herrmann, Joachim; Zürcher, Erik (ed.). History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. Vol. 3. UNESCO. pp. 181–182. ISBN 923102812X. [B]oth Cimmerians and Scythians were Iranian peoples.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Diakonoff, I. M. (1985). "Media". In Gershevitch, I. (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran: The Median and Achaemenian Periods. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-521-20091-2. The majority of the “Eastern” Iranian tribes – Scythians, Alani, Massagetae, Sakas, Chorasmians, Sogdians – remained on the territory of south-eastern Europe and in Central Asia.