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In the early 1920s, the Polish mathematician Jan Lukasiewicz discovered that if operators were written before the operands (prefix or Polish notation; for example, + a b), the parentheses are not needed. He was born on 21 December 1878 in Lemberg, Galicia, Austria-Hungary and died on 13 February 1956 in Dublin, Ireland. He was aged 77.
- Łukasiewicz, Jan 1951. Aristotle’s syllogistic from the standpoint of modern formal logic. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed, enlarged 1957. Reprinted by Garland Publishing in 1987. ISBN 0-8240-6924-2