Kaluga was used in the 14th century as a stronghold against the Tatar people on the southern borders of Muscovy. It later became a seat of provincial administration. In the early 17th century it was devastated by Cossacks, plague, and fire, and in the winter of 1941 it was held by the Germans. It has a wide range of industries, producing turbines, railway equipment, and consumer goods. The city is on the Vyazma–Tula railway near its junction with the Moscow–Kiev line.
Kaluga is located within western Russia. It occupies an area in the upper Oka River basin southwest of Moscow oblast. Broad, often swampy valleys alternate with rolling hills of the Central Russian Uplands. It is 189 kilometers southwest of Moscow, 880 kilometers southeast of Saint Petersburg and 623 kilometers southwest of Nizhny Novgorod.
Kaluga Region is one of the most promising regions of Russia to make investments in. The region holds the fifth place in the national rating of investment attractiveness. For a number of years Kaluga Region has been holding the leading positions in terms of industrial output growth rates.
Kaluga Region Government has created all conditions for successful development of both large-scale production facilities and industrial SMEs. Investors, operating in the region, admit that Kaluga Region investment policy meets the highest global standards. The regional legislative and regulatory framework guarantees the safety of investments.