former province of Japan
- Satow, Ernest. (1874). "The Geography of Japan," Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vol. 1-2, p. 35.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Koshi" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 563.
- Satow, p. 35; The name of these provinces was created using a kanji character from Koshi. A suffix was added according to the distance from the capital -- Echizen (越+zen = "near"), Etchū (越+chū = "middle"), and Echigo (越+go = "far").