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Male breast cancer (male breast neoplasm) is a rare cancer in males that originates from the breast. Many males with breast cancer have got it through a BRCA mutation, but there are other causes, including alcohol abuse and exposure to certain hormones and ionizing radiation.[1][2][3] The optimal treatment is currently not known.[4]

StagingEdit

In addition to TNM staging surgical staging for breast cancer is used; it is the same as in female breast cancer and facilitates treatment and analysis.[5]

Stage IEdit

Stage I is an invasive breast cancer with the tumor not exceeding 2 cm and absence of lymph node involvement.

Stage IIEdit

Stage II includes stages IIA and IIB.

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Male Breast Cancer Treatment". National Cancer Institute. 2006. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
  2. "Breast Cancer in Men". Cancer Research UK. 2007. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
  3. "Breast Cancer in Men" (PDF). American Cancer Society. February 9, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-24.
  4. Korde, L. A.Expression error: Unrecognized word "etal". (2010). "Multidisciplinary Meeting on Male Breast Cancer: Summary and Research Recommendations". Journal of Clinical Oncology 28 (12): 2114–2122. doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.25.5729. PMC 2860409. PMID 20308661 .
  5. Breastcancer.org. "Stages of Breast Cancer". Retrieved 2010-05-20.