Mamluks are members of a military caste that controlled Egypt from 1254 to 1811. Other mamluks held power in some other Muslim countries. The word means "slave" in the Arabic language and they began as slaves. In 1517 the Ottoman Empire conquered them, but Mamluks continued to be powerful. Muhammad Ali Pasha defeated them and took control of Egypt in 1811.
- Qur'an Carpet Page; al-Fatihah is an Islamic holy book that was owned by Mamluks from the 1300s