Menes was a pharaoh of the first dynasty of ancient Egypt. He lived ca. 3100-3000 BC. He brought together Upper and Lower Egypt to make an empire. He wore the Pschent or double crown: the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt. He built the city of Memphis and made it the capital.
There is extensive archeological evidence that there was a pharaoh named Narmer, but little evidence for Menes. It is now believed that Menes was either Narmer, his predecessor, or Hor-Aha who ruled after him.
- Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 405. Oxford University Press, 1961
- "Courtroom Friezes: North and South Walls: Information Sheet." Supreme Court of the United States.