extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth
Explosives that explode when they are hit are also called mine; Two common types are Land mines and Naval mines.

Mining is the process of digging things out of the ground. Any material that cannot be grown must be mined. Mining things from the ground is called extraction. Mining can include extraction of metals and minerals, like coal, diamond, gold, silver, platinum, copper, tin and iron. Mining can also include other things like oil and natural gas.

Miner machine with a mine worker

Some mining is done by scraping away the soil (dirt) from the top of the ground. This is called surface mining. Some mining is done by going deep underground into a mine shaft. This is called underground mining. Some mining, such as gold mining, is done in other ways. Gold can be mined by searching in the bed of a river or other stream of water to remove the flakes of gold. This is called panning or placer mining.

A worker in a mine is called a miner. Underground mining is a dangerous job. Many mines have accidents. Hundreds of miners die every year from accidents, mostly in poor countries. Safety rules and special safety equipment is used to try and protect miners from accidents. Underground coal mining is especially dangerous because coal can give off poisonous and explosive gases.

Some towns are mining towns. People live there because they can make money as miners or by doing things for miners. When mining stops the town may become a ghost town.

Mining operations often make the environment worse, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most countries have passed regulations to decrease the effect of mining. Work safety has long been a concern, and has been improved in mines.