Kahlon is of Libyan-Jewish descent. After being eight years in the army, he worked as a businessman. Later on, he studied politicology at Haifa University, law at Netanya Academic College and management at Harvard University.
He returned into the Knesset in 2015 with Kulanu, which he founded in 2014. In the Fourth Netanyahu Government he has been finance minister since 2015. He again withdrew from Knesset in 2016. From 2019 to 2020 he again was an MK.
With Kulanu he wants to fight socioeconomic problems.