Muhammad Iqbal

South Asian Muslim writer, philosopher, and politician

Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a Muslim poet and philosopher. Allama Iqbal gave the idea of Pakistan. He posthumously became the national poet of Pakistan. He is also known as the poet of East. He wrote poetry in Urdu and Persian. His poetry is considered to be revolutionary.[1] His vision of an independent state for the Muslims of British India was a starting point for the creation of Pakistan. He is commonly referred to as Dr Allama Muhammad Iqbal.


Dr Muhammad Iqbal
محمد اِقبال
Allama Muhammad Iqbal
Muhammad Iqbal

(1877-11-09)9 November 1877
Died21 April 1938(1938-04-21) (aged 60)
NationalityBritish Indian
Other namesPoet of the East
شاعر مشرق
Alma materScotch Mission College (F.A.)
Government College (B.A., M.A.)
University of Cambridge (B.A.)
University of Munich (Ph.D.)
Notable work
The Secrets of the Self, The Secrets of Selflessness, Message from the East, Persian Psalms, Javid Nama (more works)
Era20th-century philosophy
RegionBritish India
Main interests
Urdu poetry, Persian poetry, Law
Notable ideas
Two-nation theory, Allahabad Address

Early life and educationEdit

Muhammad Iqbal was born on 9 November 1877. His father was Sheikh Noor Muhammad,[2] who worked in a small government job but later started his own business, and his mother was Imam Bibi. Both Allama Iqbal's mother and father were very pious and religious-minded people and devoted to a simple life. After early Islamic education and then secondary at a small school in Sialkot, Iqbal was admitted to the Scottish Murray College, Sialkot, where he topped the higher secondary examinations and got a scholarship to study at the famous Government College, Lahore, for BA. On going to live in the hostel there, Iqbal met Professor Arnold, an English teacher who taught many things to Iqbal and guided him in his studies of philosophy and literature. He was very young at that time. He died on 21 April 1938.

Early careerEdit

At that time, Iqbal also became well known as a new poet and writer. He used to go to attend the 'Mushaira' at the haveli of Hakim Syed Aminuddin, in BhaatiGate area of Old Lahore city—hekre, he met many famous poets and writers and also began to write good poems which became very popular. He was guided by Mirza Dagh. His first famous poem, Koh i Himala was also printed in Makhzan magazine, owned by Hakim Shuja uddin and Sir Abdul Qadir

After doing his BA and MA from Government College, Lahore, Iqbal was appointed a professor at this same institution and after some time, in 1905, he was selected for higher studies iity of London, and then he went to Munich, Germany, where he took a PHD degree. After all his study, Iqbal decided to go back and teach and also practice law in India.

Later career, poetic and ideological workEdit

At that time he faced many difficulties.Although faced by some of the difficulties, Iqbal followed this plan. He taught some senior classes at Government College and also practiced Law at Lahore High Court. At the same time, he wrote many famous poems such as Asrar i Khudi, Ramuz i Bekhudi, Payam i Mashriq, Zabur i Ajam, Bang i Dara, Bal i Jibrail and etc. Because of his learning and knowledge, people soon began to call him 'Allama' Iqbal and in 1923, King George V of Britain, giving him the title of Allama 'Sir' Muhammad Iqbal. He was awarded 5 awards.

Ideological workEdit

Allama Iqbal was a poet and a philosopher, he was always concerned about the thoughts, ideas and condition of Muslims everywhere, but specially Indian Muslims who were under British Rule and also threatened by Brahman ruling population. Iqbal believed strongly in Sir Syed Ahmed Khan's earlier idea about 'Two Nation theory' that Muslims and Hindus were two separate nations and should be allowed to live separately. He put forward this idea again in his famous Allahabad Address of Muslim League, in 1930,[3] and also preached this in his poems and lectures. Allama's words and ideas inspired many Muslims, some of whom became leaders of the Muslim League, and struggled to obtain Pakistan later on. He was very popular amongst the Muslim masses too. Being such an influential poet for the Muslims of India, Iqbal also saw the Iqbal Day being celebrated during his lifetime acros the sub-continent.


He died on 21 April 1938 in Lahore, Punjab, British India.

Related pagesEdit


  1. Bhatti, Alama (2006-06-28). "Iqbal and Goethe" (PDF). Yearbook of the Goethe Society of India.
  2. Anjum, Zafar. (13 October 2014). Iqbal : The Life of a Poet, Philosopher and and and and Politician. ISBN 9788184006568. OCLC 1015890929.
  3. Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal's 1930 Presidential Address to the Muslim League at Allahabad