A birth name is the family name someone has when he or she is born, or at least from the time he or she is a child. This term can be used by a man or a woman who changes a name later in life for any reason.
A maiden name is the family name—usually the birth name—a woman has before she marries.
A married name is the family name taken by a married person at the time of the marriage. The most common example is when a woman takes the family name of her spouse at the time of marriage. But sometimes a man changes his name at marriage. Also, sometimes both people change their names, such as to a hyphenated or other mixed name.
Sometimes the words "né" (for a man) or "née" (for a woman) are used to show a birth name or maiden name. These words mean "born", and are borrowedv.2 from French.