Nefertiti (pronounced at the time something like *nafratiːta) (c. 1370 BC – c. 1330 BC) was the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. She was the mother-in-law and may have been stepmother of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun. After her husband died, Nefertiti may have also ruled as pharaoh under the name Neferneferuaten. However, some archaeologists do not think Nefertiti was Neferneferuaten.
Her name in English means "the beautiful (or perfect) woman has come". Nefertiti was one of the most powerful queens in Ancient Egypt.
Nefertiti was the first and most loved wife of Akhenaten. He had a total of eight wives, but she was different from the rest. Ramses was devoted and obsessed with her beauty. Nefertiti reigned beside the pharaoh toward the eighteenth dynasty. While she reigned she was known as Ankhkheperure Neferneferuatan. Nefertiti was such an educated woman, she was able to read and write hieroglyphs. It was a rare skill that barely anyone had. While being married she had six daughters, and no matter how old Nefertiti was, Akhenaten still loved her deeply.
There are many tales about Nefertiti being born as a royal and her father being pharaoh Ay, but they are not confirmed. So it would be unlikely that she did become a pharaoh without royal blood. Her daughter Meritaten was born a royal, so she had more of a chance of becoming a pharaoh. Her parenthood is still a mystery. The only detail known is that they were nobles.
Two of her daughters became queens of Egypt. In the 12th year of Akheneaton rule many of the princesses died, but what was more confusing was that Nefertiti vanished. So everyone assumed that she died like the other princesses. There was no record of Nefertiti’s death and no evidence that she was ever buried.
She is best known for her bust, which is in the Altes Museum in Berlin, Germany. This bust is considered to be a beautiful example of Egyptian art.
A man called Ludwig Borchardt with a team of people discovered a portrait bust of Queen Nefertiti. This bust captured all her beauty even though one of the eyes was damaged. The famous bust that everyone began knowing Nefertiti was displayed at the museum of Berlin in the 1920’s. The queen's bust became very known around the world. This caused Nefertiti to become one of the most recognized and beautiful queens in ancient Egypt before Cleopatra.
- James Allen, Middle Egyptian, (Cambridge University Press), 2004.
- Dodson, Aidan 2009. Amarna sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian counter-reformation. The American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-977-416-304-3
- "Nefertiti – Beautiful and Powerful Queen of Ancient Egypt". Osiris Tours - Luxury Travel | Private Guided Tours. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
- "Neferneferuaten". www.crystalinks.com. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
- "Nefertiti". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
- "Nefertiti was no pharaoh, says renowned Egyptologist". www.manchester.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
- "Nefertiti". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
Other websites change
- Row over Nefertiti bust continues
- Do We Have the Mummy of Nefertiti? Archived 2002-01-16 at the Wayback Machine by Marianne Luban, 1999 (predates Joann Fletcher's work).
- J. Kluger, A. Dorfman, Nefertiti found?, Time, June 16, 2003; online edition Archived 2007-02-23 at the Wayback Machine
- Tracking Nefertiti Discovery article on Joann Fletcher's work.
- King Tut tut tut The Sunday Times on Joann Fletcher's work.
- Spinning Nefertiti Archived 2008-09-13 at the Wayback Machine
- Discussion on the Nefertiti found? program Archived 2004-12-08 at the Wayback Machine
- The Encyclopedia of El Amarna, examining her time and connections
- Nefertiti, a musical based on the Egyptian queen.
- Altes Museum, Berlin Archived 2005-12-27 at the Wayback Machine
- "Queen Nefertiti, Images & History"
- Reconstruction of Nefertiti's Face
- "M.A. Mansoor Amarna Collection"