Operation Meetinghouse

Firebombing raid on Tokyo (WWII)

Operation Meetinghouse was a bombing attack by the United States against Japan on the night between the 9th and 10th of March 1945.[1] American bombers dropped firebombs without a specific target on the Japanese city of Tokyo. These firebombs created a huge firestorm which killed over 100,000 people and destroyed the homes of about 1 million more people. It is notable for being the most deadly attack from the air in world history. The attack was a change in strategy for the United States, which had previously only attacked from the air during the day, focusing on specific buildings.[2]

Operation Meetinghouse
Part of World War II
Date9-10 March 1945
Tokyo, Japan
United States Japan
Commanders and leaders
Curtis Lemay Shizuichi Tanaka
Units involved
21st USAAF Bomber Command

Around 638 antiaircraft guns 90 fighter planes

Tokyo firefighters
Casualties and losses

14 aircraft destroyed

96 aircrew killed or missing

90,000 to 100,000 killed (most common estimates) Over one million without homes

267,171 buildings destroyed


  1. "Legacy of the Great Tokyo Air Raid". The Japan Times. 2015-03-15. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
  2. "English – 東京大空襲・戦災資料センター" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2019-09-13.