the name given to members of the old-established upper class in ancient Rome as well as in the Middle Ages
- Kurt Raaflaub, ed. Social Struggles in Archaic Rome: New Perspectives on the Conflict of the Orders (Blackwell Publishing, 2005)
- Gary Forsythe, 2005, A Critical History of Early Rome. University of California Press.
- Kenny Zeng, 2007, A History Of Ancient and Early Rome