Race and crime in the United States
Since the 1980s, the debate has focused on the causes of some minorities at all stages of the criminal justice system, including arrests, racial background of violent criminals as identified by their victims, prosecutions and incarcerations. Federal Prosecutors of African American and Hispanic defendants are twice as likely to push for mandatory minimum sentences, leading to longer sentences and disparities in incarceration rates for federal offenses.
- Gabbidon & Greene (2005a:ix-x); Gabbidon & Greene (2005b:37).
- Gabbidon & Greene (2005b:37); Bowling (2006:140). See also Sampson & Wilson (2005:177-178); Myrdal (1988:88).
- Rehavi and Starr (2012) "Racial Disparity in Federal Criminal Charging and Its Sentencing Consequences" Working Paper Series, no. 12-002 (Univ. of Michigan Law & Economics, Empirical Legal Studies Center)