Free radical

atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron; typically highly reactive
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A free radical is a molecule with an unpaired electron. The molecule is reactive and seeks another electron to pair.[1] Free radicals are involved in the mechanisms of damage associated with disease development. Examples are hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide.[2]

A radical is an atom or group of an (?) which possesses electric charge.[3] There are two types of radicals: Cation and anion. Cation are positively charged while anion are negatively charged.[4] Examples of cation are Calcium (Ca2+), Potassium (K+), Hydrogen (H+).[5] Examples of anion are Iodide (I-), Chlorine (Cl-) and Hydroxide (OH-).[6]

The need for antioxidants in peoples’ daily life is becoming more critical with increased exposure to free radicals.[7] Pollution, cigarette smoke, drugs, illness and stress can increase our exposure.

References change

  1. Rice-Evans, C. (1999). “Screening of phenolics and flavonoids for antioxidant activity”. In: Antioxidant Food Supplements in Human Health. Academic Press, p. 239–253.
  2. Afzal, M., Armstrong, D. (2002). “Fractionation of herbal medicine for identifying antioxidant activity”. In: Armstrong, D. (Ed.) Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 186: Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Antioxidant Protocols, Humana Press Inc.
  3. "Radical | Chemistry | Britannica". Retrieved 2021-11-22.
  4. "Cation vs. Anion: The Difference Between Them Is Electrifying". 2021-07-27. Retrieved 2021-11-22.
  5. "What is Cation? Review Your Chemistry Concepts".
  6. Gorm, Mary; Writer, y White Staff. "Ion Examples With Positive & Negative Charges". Retrieved 2021-11-22.
  7. Percival, M. (1998). “Antioxidants”. Clinical Nutrition Insights 1/96 Rev. 10/98.