human-made markings on natural stone
One can find petroglyphs and pictographs on the walls of a cave or on rock in open-air.
"The Shoemaker", Brastad, Sweden
- Moore G. 1861. The lost tribes and the Saxons of the East: with translations of rock-records in India.
- Tylor 1865. Early history of Man. v. 88, "Rock-sculptures may often be symbolic boundary marks".
- Deutsch, Rem. 177, 1874: The long rock-inscription of Hamamât.
- Chadwick H.M. 1907. The rock-carvings at Tegneby. Origin Eng. Nation xii. 306.
- Encycl. Relig. & Ethics I. 822/2, 1908: "The rock-paintings are either stencilled or painted in outline".
- Wells H.G. 1920 Outl. Hist. I. xvii. 126/1: "From rock engravings we may deduce the theory that the desert was crossed from oasis to oasis".
- Winkler H.A. 1938. Rock-drawings of southern Upper Egypt I. 26.
- Man No. 119. 178/2, 1939: "On one of the stalactite pillars was found a big round stone with traces of red paint on its surface, as used in the rock-pictures"
- Malotki, Ekkehart and Weaver, Donald E. Jr., 2002, Stone Chisel and Yucca Brush: Colorao Plateau Rock Art, Kiva Publishing Inc., Walnut, CA, ISBN 1-885772-27-0 (cloth). For the "general public", this book has well over 200 color prints with commentary on each site where the photos were taken; the organization begins with the earliest art and goes to modern times.
- Rohn, Arthur H. and Freguson, William M, 2006, Puebloan ruins of the Southwest, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM, ISBN 0-8263-3970-0 (pbk, : alk. paper). Adjunct to the primary discussion of the ruins, contains color prints of rock art at the sites, plus interpretations.
- Schaafsma, Polly, 1980, Indian Rock Art of the Southwest, School of American Research, Sana Fe, University of New Mexico press, Albuquerque, NM, ISBN 0-8263-0913-5. Scholarly text with 349 references, 32 color plates, 283 black and white "Figures", 11 Maps, and 2 Tables.
- Ekaterina, Devlet. 2001. Rock Art and the material culture of Siberian and central Asian shamanism. In The Archaeology of Shamanism. 43-54. 01/04/2007.
- Rock Art studies - A Bibliographic database at the Bancroft Library containing over 10,000 citations to the world's rock art literature.
- The website of Rock Art Foundation - Native American Rock Art
- Trust for African Rock Art
- British Rock Art Collection
- ARARA American Rock Art Research Association.
- Rupestre.net A rock art site, mainly devoted to Valcamonica and Alpine Rock Art.
- EuroPreArt The database of European Prehistoric Art.
- Art and Archaeology of the Dampier Archipelago
- Bradshaw Foundation Supports dissemination of information on rock art, migration, and the study of artistic man around the world.
- Rock Art in South Africa http://rockart.wits.ac.za/origins/
- UNESCO World Heritage: Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka