For example, a program written in Java calls for services from the Java Runtime Environment by issuing commands from which the expected result is returned by the Java Runtime. By providing these services, the Java Runtime Environment is considered the runtime environment of the program. Both the program and the Java Runtime Environment request services from the operating system. The operating system kernel provides services for itself and all processes and software running under its control. The Operating System may be considered as providing a runtime environment for itself.
- Jon Byous, Java technology: The early years. Sun Developer Network, no date [ca. 1998]. Retrieved April 22, 2005.
- James Gosling, A brief history of the Green project Archived 2007-06-18 at the Wayback Machine. Java.net, no date [ca. Q1/1998]. Retrieved April 29, 2007.
- James Gosling, Bill Joy, Guy Steele, and Gilad Bracha, The Java language specification, third edition. Addison-Wesley, 2005. ISBN 0-321-24678-0 (see also online edition of the specification)
- Tim Lindholm and Frank Yellin. The Java Virtual Machine specification, second edition. Addison-Wesley, 1999. ISBN 0-201-43294-3 (see also online edition of the specification).