In the early centuries of the Common Era, Greek and Latin writings used the term to talk about the people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province of Arabia Petraea, and in Arabia Deserta.
The oldest known source mentioning Saracen dates to the 7th century.
- Daniel 1979, p. 53. sfn error: no target: CITEREFDaniel1979 (help)
- Retsö 2003, p. 505. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRetsö2003 (help)
- Retsö 2003, p. 506. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRetsö2003 (help)
- Déroche, Vincent; Dagron, Gilbert (1991). Doctrina Jacobi nuper Baptizati, "Juifs et chrétiens dans l'Orient du VIIe siècle" (Edition of the Greek text with French translation ed.). pp. 17–248.; Kirby, Peter. "External references to Islam". External References to Islam. Archived from the original on 2006-04-29. Retrieved 2020-12-30.