Stoneware

vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic made primarily from stoneware clay or non-refractory fire clay
Jian ware tea bowl with "hare's fur" glaze, southern Song dynasty, 12th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art (see below)[1]

Stoneware is a broad term for pottery or other ceramics fired at a relatively high temperature.[2][3] It may or may not be glazed.[4] It was developed after earthenware and before porcelain. Stoneware can be made from a much wider range of clays than porcelain.

Historically, reaching high temperatures was a big challenge. Lower temperatures were used for a long time. Earthenware can be fired as low as 600°C. This was done in primitive pit firing, but 800 °C (1,470 °F) to 1,100 °C (2,010 °F) was more typical.[5]

As a rough guide, modern earthenwares are normally fired in a kiln at temperatures in the range of about 1,000°C (1,830 °F) to 1,200 °C (2,190 °F); stonewares at between about 1,100 °C (2,010 °F) to 1,300 °C (2,370 °F); and porcelains at between about 1,200 °C (2,190 °F) to 1,400 °C (2,550 °F).

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Tea Bowl with "Hare's-Fur" Glaze". Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2012-11-30. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
  2. Clay vitrifying temperatures
  3. Arthur Dodd & David Murfin. Dictionary of Ceramics; 3rd edition. The Institute of Minerals, 1994.
  4. Encyclopædia Britannica Jasperware is unglazed stoneware
  5. Medley, Margaret 1989. The Chinese potter: a practical history of Chinese ceramics. p13, 3rd edition. London: Phaidon. ISBN 071482593X