preparation of soil by mechanical agitation

Tillage is the process in which soil is loosened and softened by tillers or harrows pulled by a tractor or by a plough pulled by an animal or human. The plough breaks the upper crust of the soil so that air and sunlight enter into the soil. This makes the soil more fertile but too much or frequent tillage may make it less fertile.

A farmer with a traditional horse-pulled plough.