The English used in this article or section may not be easy for everybody to understand. (August 2018)
Ubuntu 19.10 "Eoan Ermine"
|Source model||Open-source, some proprietary drivers|
|Initial release||20 October 2004|
|Latest release||Ubuntu 19.10 / 17 October 2019|
|Marketing target||Cloud computing, IoT, personal computers, servers|
|Available in||More than 55 languages by LoCos|
|Update method||Software Updater|
|Package manager||GNOME Software, APT, dpkg, Snappy, flatpak|
|Platforms||IA-32, x86-64, ARM and more (i.e. at least all traditional computers/devices)|
|Default user interface||GNOME|
It is one of the most popular Linux distributions and it is based on Debian Linux computer operating system. The goal with Ubuntu is to make it easy to use and install onto a computer. Ubuntu can be used on all types of personal computers (and even devices such as robots) including in Windows 10. Ubuntu is downloaded as a DVD, which is free to download on the Ubuntu website. It can be installed or tested by running the DVD.
Ubuntu is released every six months, with long-term support (LTS) releases every two years. The latest release is 19.10 ("Eoan Ermine"), while the most recent long-term support release (what most users may want to choose) is 18.04 LTS ("Bionic Beaver"), which is supported until 2028.
Packages and software supportEdit
The English used in this article or section may not be easy for everybody to understand. (March 2012)
|free software||non-free software|
Free software here includes only software that meets the Ubuntu licensing requirements, which almost are the same as the Debian Free Software Guidelines. There is one difference for the Main category, however – it has firmware and fonts which cannot be changed, but are included if Ubuntu will not work right.
Non-free software is usually unsupported (Multiverse), but some exceptions (Restricted) are given for very important non-free software. Supported non-free software include device drivers that are needed to run Ubuntu on current hardware. The level of support in the Restricted category is less than that of Main, since the developers may not be able to get to the source code. It is wanted that Main and Restricted should contain all the software needed for a general-use Linux system.
Besides the official repositories is Ubuntu Backports, which is an officially known project to backport newer software from later versions of Ubuntu. The repository is not comprehensive (meaning that it has parts missing from it); it is mostly made up of user-requested packages, which are accepted if they meet quality guidelines.
The number of the Ubuntu release is 'X.YY', with 'X' being the year of release (minus 2000) and 'Y' being the month of release. For example, Ubuntu 4.10 was released in October (the tenth month of the year), 2004. The name of the release (for example, Breezy Badger) is an adjective (a describing word) followed by the name of an animal.
|Version||Release date||Name||More information|
|4.10||20 October 2004||Warty Warthog||First version|
|5.04||8 April 2005||Hoary Hedgehog||First "Kubuntu" created|
|5.10||13 October 2005||Breezy Badger||First "Edubuntu"|
|6.06||1 June 2006||Dapper Drake||LTS-version, First "Xubuntu" created|
|6.06.1||August 2006||Dapper Drake Point One||LTS-version, 1st update|
|6.06.2||January 2008||Dapper Drake Point Two||LTS-version, 2nd update|
|6.10||26 October 2006||Edgy Eft||experimental version|
|7.04||19 April 2007||Feisty Fawn|
|7.10||18 October 2007||Gutsy Gibbon||First "Gobuntu" created|
|8.04||24 April 2008||Hardy Heron||LTS-version|
|8.04.1||June 2008||Hardy Heron Point One||LTS-version, 1st update|
|8.10||27 October 2008||Intrepid Ibex|
|9.04||23 April 2009||Jaunty Jackalope|
|9.10||29 October 2009||Karmic Koala|
|10.04||29 April 2010||Lucid Lynx||LTS-version|
|10.10||10 October 2010||Maverick Meerkat|
|11.04||28 April 2011||Natty Narwhal|
|11.10||13 October 2011||Oneiric Ocelot|
|12.04||26 April 2012||Precise Pangolin||LTS-version|
|12.10||18 October 2012||Quantal Quetzel|
|13.04||25 April 2013||Raring Ringtail|
|13.10||17 October 2013||Saucy Salamander||Server release|
|14.04||17 April 2014||Trusty Tahr||LTS-version|
|14.10||20 October 2014||Utopic Unicorn|
|15.04||23 April 2015||Vivid Vervet|
|15.10||22 October 2015||Wily Werewolf|
|16.04||21 April 2016||Xenial Xerus||LTS-version|
|16.10||13 October 2016||Yakkety Yak|
|17.04||13 April 2017||Zesty Zapus|
|17.10||19 October 2017||Artful Aardvark|
|18.04||26 April 2018||Bionic Beaver||LTS-version|
|18.10||18 October 2018||Cosmic Cuttlefish|
|19.04||18 April 2019||Disco Dingo|
|19.10||17 October 2019||Eoan Ermine|
LTS indicates Long Term Support.
Very old (i.e. 32-bit i386) processors have been supported up to Ubuntu 18.04, but users "will not be allowed to upgrade to Ubuntu 18.10 as dropping support for that architecture is being evaluated".
Ubuntu is available in many different variants, e.g. because there are several options for which desktop environment to use.
The official sister distributions which are fully supported by Canonical are:
- Ubuntu Kylin, an official derivative aimed at the Chinese market
- Kubuntu, a desktop distribution using KDE rather than GNOME
- Ubuntu Server Edition, which is mainly used on servers to provide services. This version only comes with a command line interface, but a graphical user interface can be installed.
- Xubuntu, a "lightweight" distribution based on the Xfce desktop environment instead of GNOME, designed to run better on low-specification computers
- Lubuntu, a desktop using the LXDE desktop environment
- Ubuntu Budgie, a desktop using the Budgie desktop environment
- Ubuntu MATE
- Ubuntu Studio, a multimedia-creation form of Ubuntu
- Edubuntu, a distribution designed for classrooms using Unity
- "kernel.ubuntu.com". kernel.ubuntu.com.
- "Index of /ubuntu". archive.ubuntu.com.
- "Explaining Why We Don't Endorse Other Systems". Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- Conrad, Adam (18 April 2019). "Ubuntu 19.04 (Disco Dingo) released".
- "Supported Hardware". Official Ubuntu Documentation. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Ubuntu 11.10 will support ARM processors to take on Red Hat". The Inquirer. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Paul, Ryan (26 April 2012). "Precise Pangolin rolls out: Ubuntu 12.04 released, introduces Unity HUD". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Larabel, Michael (23 January 2012). "Ubuntu's Already Making Plans For ARM In 2014, 2015". Phoronix. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (22 August 2011). "Ubuntu Linux bets on the ARM server". ZDNet. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "uBuntu - Its Meaning". Ubuntu Peace Project. Retrieved 14 December 2008.
- Daniel Miessler (23 October 2007). "This is How You Pronounce Ubuntu". danielmiessler.com. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- "Your first robot: A beginner's guide to ROS and Ubuntu Core [1/5]". blog.ubuntu.com.
- Trenholm, Richard. "Open source Ubuntu Core connects robots, drones and smart homes". CNET.
- "Releases - Ubuntu Wiki". wiki.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "LTS - Ubuntu Wiki". wiki.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "ubuntu/components". Retrieved 16 March 2006.
- "ubuntu/licensing". Retrieved 29 June 2006.
- "ubuntu/components". Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- "UbuntuBackports". Retrieved 18 August 2008.
- "Ubuntu naming system". Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- "Ubuntu 5.10 announcement". Retrieved 18 August 2008.
- "Ubuntu 5.10 release notes". Retrieved 21 December 2006.
- "Ubuntu 6.06 announcement". Retrieved 18 August 2008.
- "Ubuntu 6.06 release notes". Retrieved 21 December 2006.
- "Ubuntu 6.10 announcement". Retrieved 18 August 2008.
- "Ubuntu 6.10 release notes". Retrieved 21 December 2006.
- "Ubuntu 7.04 announcement". Retrieved 18 August 2008.
- "Ubuntu 8.10 Desktop Edition enables mobile, flexible computing for a changing digital world"
- "Ubuntu 13.10 (Saucy Salamander) released"
- Adam Conrad (17 April 2014). "Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (Trusty Tahr) released". Ubuntu Mailing Lists. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- "Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus) released"
- ArchLinux.org, "Official repositories," excerpt, "A software repository is a storage location from which software packages may be retrieved and installed on a computer"; retrieved 2012-06-07.
- Unbuntu, Package unetbootin; retrieved 2012-06-07.
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