Volcanic Explosivity Index
In volcanology, the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) is the way to measure the strength of a volcanic eruption. The Volcanic Explosivity Index measures how large or strong volcanic eruptions are. The index is a scale of 0 to 8. 0 is very small, and 8 is huge and very rare.
The largest eruption in modern times, the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, was a 5 on the index. The Oruanui eruption of the Taupo Volcano in New Zealand was the world’s largest known eruption in the past 70,000 years was an 8. Another eruption of the Taupo volcano happened about 1,800 years ago. It was the most violent eruption in the world in the last 5,000 years. Mt Tambora was a 7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. Supervolcanoes have a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 8; and if the definition is expanded, also include volcanoes with a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7.
- Newhall, Christopher G.; Self, Stephen (1982). "The volcanic explosivity index (VEI): An estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism". Journal of Geophysical Research. 87 (C2): 1231–1238. Bibcode:1982JGR....87.1231N. doi:10.1029/JC087iC02p01231.
- Mason, Ben G.; Pyle, David M.; Oppenheimer, Clive (2004). "The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth". Bulletin of Volcanology. 66 (8): 735–748. Bibcode:2004BVol...66..735M. doi:10.1007/s00445-004-0355-9. S2CID 129680497.
- VEI glossary entry Archived 2007-10-08 at the Wayback Machine from a USGS website
- How to measure the size of a volcanic eruption Archived 2007-03-12 at the Wayback Machine, from The Guardian
- The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth[permanent dead link], a 2004 article from the Bulletin of Volcanology
- List of Large Holocene Eruptions (VEI > 4) from the Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program