Alexander Cools

Dutch behavioral pharmacologist

Alexander Rudolf "Lex" Cools (The Hague, 1941 – Nijmegen, 7 September 2013) was a Dutch neuroscientist. He was interested in the pharmacology of behavior.

Alexander Cools
Alexander Cools.JPG
BornSeptember 14?, 1941
DiedSeptember 7, 2013(2013-09-07) (aged 71)
Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Alma materRadboud University Nijmegen
Known forResearch on dopamine and the basal ganglia
AwardsDistinguished Achievement Award (EBPS)
Scientific career
InstitutionsRadboud University Nijmegen
ThesisThe Caudate Nucleus and Neurochemical Control of Behaviour: The Function of Dopamine and Serotonin in the Caput Nuclei Caudati of Cats (1973)
Doctoral advisorJacques van Rossum, Jo Vossen
InfluencesJacques van Rossum, Adriaan Kortlandt

Cools got his Doctor of Philosophy in 1973 at the Radboud University Nijmegen.[1] He was a professor in Nijmegen from 1985 until his retirement in 2006.[2][3]

A special issue of the scientific journal Behavioural Pharmacology was dedicated to his memory in 2014.[4] Cools was one of the founders of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society. He became its second president.[3] He received that society's Distinguished Achievement Award in 2003.[3]

Cools was the first to propose (1976) the existence of different types of dopamine receptors.[5] This claim is correct but was initially not believed.[3] Cools is also known for his work on the basal ganglia.[3][2][4]


  1. Cools, A.R. (1973). The Caudate Nucleus and Neurochemical Control of Behaviour: The Function of Dopamine and Serotonin in the Caput Nuclei Caudati of Cats (Ph.D.). Drukkerij Brakkenstein. LCCN 76379116. OCLC 001179054.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ellenbroek, Bart A.; Homberg, Judith; Verheij, Miche l; Spooren, Will; Van Den Bos, Ruud; Martens, Gerard (2014). "Alexander Rudolf Cools (1942–2013)". Psychopharmacology. 231 (11): 2219–2222. doi:10.1007/s00213-014-3583-5. PMID 24770629. S2CID 11202284.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Robbins, Trevor (2015). "Alexander R. Cools (1941–2013)". Behavioural Pharmacology. 26 (1 and 2 - Special Issue): 4–5. doi:10.1097/FBP.0000000000000101. PMID 25692200. S2CID 10471063.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Willner, Paul; Bergman, Jack; Vanderschuren, Louk; Ellenbroek, Bart (2015). "The behavioural pharmacology of the basal ganglia". Behavioural Pharmacology. 26 (1–2): 1–2. doi:10.1097/FBP.0000000000000125. hdl:1874/314557. PMID 25539481. S2CID 5455276.
  5. Cools, AR; van Rossum, JM (1976). "Excitation-mediating and inhibition-mediating dopamine-receptors: a new concept towards a better understanding of electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, functional and clinical data". Psychopharmacologia. 45 (3): 243–254. doi:10.1007/BF00421135. PMID 175391. S2CID 40366909.

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