Amphetamine is a synthetic drug. The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. The class of drugs containing amphetamine includes prescription drugs commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy, amongst others. Initially, amphetamine was more popularly used to reduce appetite and to control weight.
Sometimes, the drug is used for fun or to boost performance. There are many different names that are used for amphetamines, a common one is speed. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports the typical retail price of amphetamine in Europe varied between €3 and €15 ($4 to $21.55 USD) a gram in half of the reporting countries. The name amphetamine is derived from its chemical name: alpha-methylphenethylamine.
- Drevets, W et al. (2001). "Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release in Human Ventral Striatum Correlates with Euphoria". Psychiatry 49: 81–96. http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~knutson/rab/drevets01.pdf. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
- Rang and Dale, Pharmacology
- European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2008). Annual report: the state of the drugs problem in Europe (PDF). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. p. 48. ISBN 978-92-9168-324-6.