Android (operating system)
Android is an operating system for mobile devices. It is mostly used for smartphones, like Google's own Google Pixel, as well as by other phone manufacturers like HTC and Samsung. It has also been used for tablets such as the Motorola Xoom and Amazon Kindle. A modified Linux kernel is used as Android's kernel.
Android 8.1 Oreo home screen
Open Handset Alliance
|Written in||Java (UI), C (core), C++ and more|
|Source model||Open source (most devices include proprietary components, such as Google Play)|
|Initial release||September 23, 2008|
|Latest release||9 "Pie" / August 7, 2017|
|Marketing target||Smartphones, tablet computers, smartTVs (Android TV), Android Auto and smartwatches (Wear OS)|
|Available in||100+ languages|
|Package manager||APK (primarily through Google Play; installation of APKs also possible locally or from alternative sources such as F-Droid)|
|Platforms||32- and 64-bit ARM, x86 and x86-64|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (modified Linux kernel)|
|Userland||Bionic libc, mksh shell, Toybox as core utilities beginning with Android 6.0, previously native core utilities with a few from NetBSD|
|Default user interface||Graphical (multi-touch)|
|License||Apache License 2.0|
GNU GPL v2 for the Linux kernel modifications
Google says that over 1.3 million Android smartphones are sold every day. Most mobile phones run Android, making it the most popular mobile operating system. It is also the most popular operating system in general.
It supports multitasking and two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphics.
Programs for Android, also called "apps", come from the Google Play Store. The Android programs have an extension of .apk. Google states that "Android apps can be written using Kotlin, Java, and C++ languages", while using other languages are also possible; such as Python and Go and those languages and even C++ may have restrictions. Large portions of the operating system itself are also written in Java. There are over 2.6 million apps available for Android in the Google Play Store. Some apps are distributed elsewhere.
Android version numbers and namesEdit
- 1.1: (No codename)
- 1.1: Petit Four
- 1.5: Cupcake
- 1.6: Donut
- 2.0 and 2.1: Eclair
- 2.2: Froyo (FROzen YOgurt)
- 2.3: Gingerbread
- 3.x: Honeycomb (a tablet-only version)
- 4.0: Ice Cream Sandwich
- 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3: Jelly Bean
- 4.4: KitKat
- 5.0 and 5.1: Lollipop
- 6.0 and 6.0.1: Marshmallow
- 7.0 and 7.1: Nougat
- 8.0: Oreo
- 9.0: Pie
- "Android Language Breakdown". Open Hub. October 25, 2017. Archived from the original on December 14, 2017. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
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- "Android 7.0 Nougat". Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
Multi-locale support [..]
New languages supported: Coupled with allowing you to select multiple languages preferences, Android Nougat allows you to select from 100 new languages and 25 locales for commonly used languages such as English, Spanish, French, and Arabic. This enables Apps to better support and understanding your language preferences even if your devices lacks official support for it.
- "android/platform/bionic/". Archived from the original on December 17, 2017.
- "android/platform/external/mksh/". Archived from the original on January 21, 2016.
- "android/platform/external/toybox/toys/". Archived from the original on March 14, 2016.
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- "android/platform/system/core/toolbox/". Archived from the original on February 9, 2014.
- "dd command from NetBSD as an example". Archived from the original on March 19, 2014.
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- Android Project Home
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- Android Developers Application Fundamentals
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- Android (smartphone) -Citizendium