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Apollo 11

first spaceflight that landed humans on the Moon

Apollo 11 was the first flight to send people to the moon. It was done by NASA, the American space group. It went up to space on 16 July 1969, carrying three astronauts: Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins. On 20 July 1969, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to land on the moon, while Collins stayed in orbit around the Moon.

Apollo 11
Aldrin Apollo 11 original.jpg
Buzz Aldrin poses on the Moon, allowing Neil Armstrong to photograph both of them using the visor's reflection.
Mission typeCrewed lunar landing
OperatorNASA
COSPAR ID
  • CSM: 1969-059A
  • LM: 1969-059C
SATCAT no.
  • CSM: 4039
  • LM: 4041
Mission duration8 days, 3 hours, 18 minutes, 35 seconds
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft
Manufacturer
Launch mass100,756 pounds (45,702 kg)
Landing mass10,873 pounds (4,932 kg)
Crew
Crew size3
Members
Callsign
Start of mission
Launch dateJuly 16, 1969, 13:32:00 (1969-07-16UTC13:32Z) UTC
RocketSaturn V SA-506
Launch siteKennedy Space Center LC-39A
End of mission
Recovered byUSS Hornet
Landing dateJuly 24, 1969, 16:50:35 (1969-07-24UTC16:50:36Z) UTC
Landing siteNorth Pacific Ocean
13°19′N 169°9′W / 13.317°N 169.150°W / 13.317; -169.150 (Apollo 11 splashdown)
Orbital parameters
Reference systemSelenocentric
Pericynthion100.9 kilometers (54.5 nmi)[1]
Apocynthion122.4 kilometers (66.1 nmi)[1]
Inclination1.25 degrees[1]
Period2 hours[1]
EpochJuly 19, 1969, 21:44 UTC[1]
Lunar orbiter
Spacecraft componentCommand and service module
Orbital insertionJuly 19, 1969, 17:21:50 UTC[2]
Orbital departureJuly 22, 1969, 04:55:42 UTC[3]
Orbits30
Lunar lander
Spacecraft componentApollo Lunar Module
Landing dateJuly 20, 1969, 20:17:40 UTC
Return launchJuly 21, 1969, 17:54 UTC
Landing siteMare Tranquillitatis
Template:Lunar coords and quad cat[4]
Sample mass21.55 kilograms (47.51 lb)
Surface EVAs1
EVA duration2 hours, 31 minutes, 40 seconds
Docking with LM
Docking dateJuly 16, 1969, 16:56:03 UTC[2]
Undocking dateJuly 20, 1969, 17:44:00 UTC[5]
Docking with LM ascent stage
Docking dateJuly 21, 1969, 21:35:00 UTC[3]
Undocking dateJuly 21, 1969, 23:41:31 UTC[3]
Circular insignia: eagle with wings outstretched holds olive branch on Moon with Earth in background, in blue and gold border. Three astronauts in spacesuits without helmets sitting in front of a large photo of the Moon.
Left to right: Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin 

The flight was part of the Space Race. It finished the plan set by John F. Kennedy in 1961 to "land a man on the moon, and return him safely to the Earth", before the 1960s ended.

The FlightEdit

Going to and from spaceEdit

Millions of people around the world viewed the flight of Apollo 11 on television. When the rocket was sent to space it was a world-wide event. Richard Nixon, who was then President, watched it from the White House as the rocket went up. A Saturn V rocket took flight from the Kennedy Space Center in America.

About two hours after leaving Earth the bit with the people in it went away from the main rocket. The bit with the people in it had two parts, the Apollo command and service module called Columbia and the Apollo Lunar Module called Eagle. Columbia was the space ship that stayed in space, and Eagle was the moon-landing space ship. 3 days later the team entered Lunar Orbit (orbit around the moon). A day later the Eagle went away from Columbia. The Eagle landed safely on the moon with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin inside. During the landing there were several problems with the computer. To land safely Armstrong had to fly the Eagle himself. They landed with only 25 seconds of fuel left.[6]

Events on the moonEdit

The first thing Buzz Aldrin did upon touch down was to pray. He also read some words of Jesus.[7] He did not reveal his plan to do this because someone had just made a lawsuit to stop astronauts from doing religious things in space. Armstrong became the first human to walk and speak on the moon's surface. The first words he said were:

That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.[6]

For the next two and a half hours Aldrin and Armstrong took notes, pictures and made holes to get moon rock. The landings were watched by over six million people on Earth[8] using the very big radio telescope in Australia. They did many experiments, for example the collecting of moon rocks and dust. An American flag was set up and photographed on the moon. Before doing that, President Richard Nixon did a telephone call to them:[9]

Nixon: Hello, Neil and Buzz. I'm talking to you by telephone from the Oval Room at the White House. And this certainly has to be the most historic telephone call ever made. I just can't tell you how proud we all are of what you've done. For every American, this has to be the proudest day of our lives. And for people all over the world, I am sure they too join with Americans in recognizing what an immense feat this is. Because of what you have done, the heavens have become a part of man's world. And as you talk to us from the Sea of Tranquillity, it inspires us to redouble our efforts to bring peace and tranquillity to Earth. For one priceless moment in the whole history of man, all the people on this Earth are truly one: one in their pride in what you have done, and one in our prayers that you will return safely to Earth.

Armstrong: Thank you, Mr. President. It's a great honor and privilege for us to be here, representing not only the United States, but men of peace of all nations, and with interest and curiosity, and men with a vision for the future. It's an honor for us to be able to participate here today.[10]

Leaving the moon and returning to EarthEdit

After finishing their work, Armstrong and Aldrin returned to the Eagle and slept for seven hours before starting to leave. While preparing to leave, Aldrin broke the circuit breaker in the engine starter. Armstrong used a pen to bridge the circuit and stop them from being stuck on the moon. Aldrin and Armstrong left many things on the moon: an American flag, a few experiments, a golden feather, a logo of Apollo 1 and some bronze coins honoring Yuri Gagarin and Vladimir Komarov. He also left a sign on the moon, with a message from the human race. The sign reads:

Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon, July 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all mankind.[11]

On July 24 the three astronauts returned to Earth and were immediately placed into quarantine (kept away from other people), in case they brought back some disease from the moon. They stayed in quarantine for three weeks. When they got out the men were heroes around the world. They had dinner with President Nixon, a parade in New York City and another one in Chicago. The three were also on many television shows.

PhotosEdit

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Apollo 11 Mission Summary". The Apollo Program. National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on August 29, 2013. Retrieved September 7, 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Orloff 2000, p. 106.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Orloff 2000, p. 109.
  4. Williams, David R. (December 11, 2003). "Apollo Landing Site Coordinates". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
  5. Orloff 2000, p. 107.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "The First Lunar Landing". www.hq.nasa.gov.
  7. Buzz Aldrin, Ken Abraham (2009) "Magnificent Desolation", Random House Publishers, p. 26.
  8. http://www.parkes.atnf.csiro.au/news_events/apollo11/pasa/on_eagles_wings.pdf
  9. "Exhibit: Apollo 11 and Nixon". American Originals. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. March 1996. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
  10. "Richard Nixon: Telephone Conversation With the Apollo 11 Astronauts on the Moon". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  11. Jones, Eric M., ed. (1995). "One Small Step". Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA. Retrieved June 13, 2013.

Other websitesEdit