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Baldwin V, Count of Flanders

Count of Flanders
The Seal of Baldwin V of Flanders.

Baldwin V of Flanders (1012–1067) known as Baldwin de Lille or Baldwin de Insulanus,[a] was a French nobleman and the Count of Flanders. He ruled from 1035 until his death. Baldwin was one of the most powerful counts in France at the time.

Early careerEdit

He was the son of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders and his first wife Ogive of Luxembourg.[2] She was a daughter of Frederick of Luxembourg,[3] In 1028 Baldwin married Adèle of France[4] She was the daughter of King Robert II of France.[2] At her instigation he rebelled against his father, Baldwin IV, but in 1030 they were reconciled. When his father died in 1035 Baldwin succeeded him.[2]

Count of FlandersEdit

While Eustace I, Count of Boulogne was usually at odds with Baldwin IV, he and Baldwin V had friendly relations.[5] They signed each other's charters and worked together several times. Eustace I signed three charters of Baldwin's which limited the power of advocates.[b]

Flanders under Baldwin V did not have very good relations with England.[9] Baldwin gave refuge to England's exiles and even gave them ships and men at times.[9] He protected Queen Emma 1036-1040 as well as her two sons Alfred and Harthacnut.[9] When Earl Godwin, Earl of Wessex and his family were exiled by Edward the Confessor in 1051-2, Baldwin welcomed them. He also helped them to prepare their return to England.[9] In turn Edward the Confessor positioned his fleet off the coast of Flanders while Baldwin V was warring with Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor in 1049. This threat caused Baldwin to sue for peace with the Emperor.[9]

Baldwin V had a great deal of influence due in part to several marriages alliance between Flanders and England, France and Germany.[10] He was close to his brother-in-law, Henry I,the king of France.[10] From 1060 to 1067 Baldwin was the Regent for his nephew Philip I of France.[9] In 1051 Baldwin had coerced Richildis, the widow of Count Herman of Hainault, to marry his son Baldwin VI.[11] This gave him control of Hainault through his son. This also led to a series of conflicts between Baldwin V and Emperor Henry III, as Hainault was part of the Holy Roman Empire.[11] After a series of defeats Henry III withdrew back to Germany and died a short time later. In 1056 Baldwin received the whole of the Schelt march as a fief from Agnes of Poitou, regent for her son Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor.[12] Baldwin's daughter Matilda married William I of England, later king of England.[11] At first the marriage was banned by Pope Leo IX. He did not give a reason but it was probably because the two were cousins.[13] Some time between 1050 and 1052 the two married despite the papal ban.[13] Although Baldwin allowed some Flemish support for his Norman conquest of England relations between Baldwin and his son-in-law William the Conqueror were not that friendly.[14] The English king was wary of Baldwin's growing power.[11] But by then Baldwin was growing old. He died 1 September 1067.[2]

FamilyEdit

Baldwin and his wife Adèle had three children:

NotesEdit

  1. Both these nicknames refer to his castle at Lille. De Lille (French: "of Lille") and Insulanus (Latin: Islander) because the castle was on an island.[1]
  2. Most monasteries in tenth and eleventh century Frankia had advocates (Latin: advocatus). An advocate was a nobleman who had an interest in protecting a monastery.[6] He would collect revenues for the monks. He represented them in legal cases. He would also protect their lands from attacks by others.[6] For this he received a portion of the rents. Advocacy of wealthy monasteries could be very profitable. But advocate abuse was not uncommon.[7] It could develop into taking from the very church or monastery they were paid to protect. Some interfered in Church affairs.[7] Baldwin V's charters limited the power of advocates in Flanders.[8] This was to make sure the advocated protected the church; not exploited it.[8]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Adriaan Verhulst, The Rise of Cities in North-West Europe (Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press; Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1999), p. 106
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafel 5
  3. Richard Mylius Sherman, The Ghents: A Flemish Family in Norman England, UMI Dissertation Information Service, Ann Arbor, MI (1988), p. 214
  4. David Nicholas, Medieval Flanders ( New York: Longman, 1992), p. 48
  5. Heather J. Tanner, Families, Friends, and Allies: Boulogne and Politics in Northern France and England, c. 879-1160 (Leiden; Boston : Brill, 2004), p. 83
  6. 6.0 6.1 Constance Brittain Bouchard, Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy, 980-1198 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009), p. 125
  7. 7.0 7.1 Susan Wood, The Proprietary Church in the Medieval West (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 330
  8. 8.0 8.1 Jean Dunbabin, France in the Making 843-1180, Second Edition (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 210
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Eljas Oksanen, Flanders and the Anglo-Norman World, 1066-1216 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), p. 11
  10. 10.0 10.1 Renée Nip, 'The Political Relations Between England and Flanders (1066-1128), Anglo-Norman Studies XXI: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1998, ed. Christopher Harper-Bill (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1999), pp. 146-47
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Renée Nip, 'The Political Relations Between England and Flanders (1066-1128), Anglo-Norman Studies XXI: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1998, ed. Christopher Harper-Bill (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1999), p. 147
  12. Jean Dunbabin, France in the Making 843-1180, Second Edition (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 209
  13. 13.0 13.1 David C. Douglas, William The Conqueror (Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1964), p. 76
  14. Renée Nip, 'The Political Relations Between England and Flanders (1066-1128), Anglo-Norman Studies XXI: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1998, ed. Christopher Harper-Bill (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1999), p. 145