Bangladesh Liberation War

conflict that led to the independence of the majority-Bengali country

The Bangladesh Liberation War[a] (Bengali: মুক্তিযুদ্ধ Muktijuddho) was a revolutionary independence war in 1971 which established the republic of Bangladesh.[4] The war pitted East Pakistan (later joined by India) against West Pakistan, and lasted over a duration of nine months. It witnessed large-scale atrocities, the exodus of 10 million refugees and the displacement of 30 million people.[5]

A map of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

The war started on 26 March 1971 and finished on 16 December 1971. A category 3 cyclone also appeared during the war.

Ghulam Azam and Motiur Rahman Nizami were convicted for war crimes as a result of the liberation war. Azam died before a final hearing while Nizami was executed for his crimes in May 2016.


  1. Encyclopaedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh mentions this war as Bangladesh Liberation war.[1] This war is known in Bangla as Muktijuddho or Shawdhinota Juddho.[2] This war is also called the Civil War in Pakistan[3]

  1. Gupta, Om (2006). Encyclopaedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Gyan Publishing House. p. 25. ISBN 978-81-8205-389-2.
  2. Rahman, Syedur (2010). Historical Dictionary of Bangladesh. Scarecrow Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-8108-7453-4.
  3. Moss, Peter (2005). Secondary Social Studies For Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-19-597704-2. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
  4. Library of Congress
  5. Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul Robert (2007). Dictionary of Genocide. Greenwood. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-313-32967-8.